skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification

Abstract

Innovative designs for turbines can be achieved by advances in nickel-based superalloys and manufacturing methods, including the adoption of additive manufacturing. In this regard, selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys do provide distinct advantages. Furthermore, the direct energy deposition (DED) processes can be used for repair and reclamation of nickel alloy components. The current paper explores opportunities for innovation and qualification challenges with respect to deployment of AM as a disruptive manufacturing technology. Here in the first part of the paper, fundamental correlations of processing parameters to defect tendency and microstructure evolution will be explored using DED process. In the second part of the paper, opportunities for innovation in terms of site-specific control of microstructure during processing will be discussed. In the third part of the paper, challenges in qualification of AM parts for service will be discussed and potential methods to alleviate these issues through in situ process monitoring, and big data analytics are proposed.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Arconic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  4. Oerlikon, Charlotte, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1471909
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Publisher:
ASM International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh, Raghavan, Narendran, Raplee, Jacob, Foster, Sarah J., Frederick, Curtis, Haines, Michael, Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton, Kirka, Michael M., Plotkowski, Alex J., Lee, Yousub, and Dehoff, Ryan R. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4702-4.
Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh, Raghavan, Narendran, Raplee, Jacob, Foster, Sarah J., Frederick, Curtis, Haines, Michael, Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton, Kirka, Michael M., Plotkowski, Alex J., Lee, Yousub, & Dehoff, Ryan R. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-018-4702-4
Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh, Raghavan, Narendran, Raplee, Jacob, Foster, Sarah J., Frederick, Curtis, Haines, Michael, Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton, Kirka, Michael M., Plotkowski, Alex J., Lee, Yousub, and Dehoff, Ryan R. Fri . "Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-018-4702-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1471909.
@article{osti_1471909,
title = {Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification},
author = {Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh and Raghavan, Narendran and Raplee, Jacob and Foster, Sarah J. and Frederick, Curtis and Haines, Michael and Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton and Kirka, Michael M. and Plotkowski, Alex J. and Lee, Yousub and Dehoff, Ryan R.},
abstractNote = {Innovative designs for turbines can be achieved by advances in nickel-based superalloys and manufacturing methods, including the adoption of additive manufacturing. In this regard, selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys do provide distinct advantages. Furthermore, the direct energy deposition (DED) processes can be used for repair and reclamation of nickel alloy components. The current paper explores opportunities for innovation and qualification challenges with respect to deployment of AM as a disruptive manufacturing technology. Here in the first part of the paper, fundamental correlations of processing parameters to defect tendency and microstructure evolution will be explored using DED process. In the second part of the paper, opportunities for innovation in terms of site-specific control of microstructure during processing will be discussed. In the third part of the paper, challenges in qualification of AM parts for service will be discussed and potential methods to alleviate these issues through in situ process monitoring, and big data analytics are proposed.},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-018-4702-4},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
number = 9,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 8 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Assessing the capability of in-situ nondestructive analysis during layer based additive manufacture
journal, January 2017


Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting: Effect of microstructure and temperature on the mechanical properties under static and cyclic loading
journal, December 2013


Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing
journal, November 2015

  • Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep16446

Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing
text, January 2016


Additive manufacturing of materials: Opportunities and challenges
journal, November 2015


Evolution of dislocation structure in the heat affected zone of a nickel-based single crystal
journal, October 2004

  • Barabash, O. M.; Horton, J. A.; Babu, S. S.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1777393

Dendritic growth
journal, January 1994


Characterization of the microstructure evolution in a nickel base superalloy during continuous cooling conditions
journal, December 2001


Fractal scan strategies for selective laser melting of ‘unweldable’ nickel superalloys
journal, May 2017


The Dependence of Portevin–Le Châtelier Effect on the γ′ Precipitates in a Wrought Ni-Base Superalloy
journal, August 2016

  • Wang, Xinguang; Han, Guoming; Cui, Chuanyong
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-016-3718-x

The Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect in the Ni-Based Superalloy IN100
journal, September 2015

  • Fernandez-Zelaia, Patxi; Adair, Benjamin S.; Barker, Vincent M.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 46, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-3126-7

Numerical analysis of the weldability of superalloys
journal, February 2001


Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing
journal, March 2017

  • Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep43554

Association of microstructural features and rippling phenomenon in 304 stainless steel gas tungsten arc welds
journal, April 2004


Effect of inter-layer dwell time on distortion and residual stress in additive manufacturing of titanium and nickel alloys
journal, January 2015


Processability of different IN738LC powder batches by selective laser melting
journal, March 2016


3D printing: the new industrial revolution
journal, December 2013


Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing
journal, January 2016

  • Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep19717

Prediction of microstructure in laser powder bed fusion process
journal, February 2017


3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys
journal, September 2017

  • Martin, John H.; Yahata, Brennan D.; Hundley, Jacob M.
  • Nature, Vol. 549, Issue 7672
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature23894

Single-crystal laser deposition of superalloys: processing–microstructure maps
journal, April 2001


Solution Heat Treatment of the Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting: Solution Heat Treatment of the Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4
journal, April 2015

  • Ramsperger, Markus; Mújica Roncery, Laís; Lopez-Galilea, Inmaculada
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201500037

Falcon: Visual analysis of large, irregularly sampled, and multivariate time series data in additive manufacturing
journal, April 2017


Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials
journal, July 2016


Hot workability and microstructure evolution of the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 produced by laser metal deposition
journal, April 2018


Solidification Phase and Microstructure Selection Maps for Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys.
journal, January 1999


3-D printing: The new industrial revolution
journal, March 2012


Surface texture metrology for metal additive manufacturing: a review
journal, October 2016


An iterative approach of hot isostatic pressing tooling design for net-shape IN718 superalloy parts
journal, August 2015

  • Essa, Khamis; Khan, Raja; Hassanin, Hany
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 83, Issue 9-12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-015-7603-3

Microstructure and tensile properties of superalloy IN100 fabricated by micro-laser aided additive manufacturing
journal, August 2014


Thermal Science of Weld Bead Defects: A Review
journal, November 2010


Metallic materials for 3D printing
journal, October 2016

  • Das, Suman; Bourell, David L.; Babu, S. S.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 41, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2016.217

Dendritic growth
journal, January 1994


Additive manufacturing of Ni-based superalloys: The outstanding issues
journal, October 2016

  • Attallah, Moataz M.; Jennings, Rachel; Wang, Xiqian
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 41, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2016.211

Comparison of Residual Stresses in Inconel 718 Simple Parts Made by Electron Beam Melting and Direct Laser Metal Sintering
journal, January 2015

  • Sochalski-Kolbus, L. M.; Payzant, E. A.; Cornwell, P. A.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 46, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-014-2722-2

Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility
journal, October 2017

  • Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat5021

A simple model for multipass steel welds
journal, November 1994


Characterization of topology optimized Ti-6Al-4V components using electron beam powder bed fusion
journal, January 2018


Texture, anisotropy in microstructure and mechanical properties of IN738LC alloy processed by selective laser melting (SLM)
journal, January 2015

  • Kunze, Karsten; Etter, Thomas; Grässlin, Jürgen
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 620
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.10.003

Characterization of Laser Additive Manufacturing-Fabricated Porous Superalloys for Turbine Components
journal, May 2017

  • Ealy, Brandon; Calderon, Luisana; Wang, Wenping
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 139, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4035560

Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting
journal, January 2016

  • Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-3300-y

Stray grain formation, thermomechanical stress and solidification cracking in single crystal nickel base superalloy welds
journal, December 2004

  • Park, J. -W.; Vitek, J. M.; Babu, S. S.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1179/136217104225021841

Time-resolved X-ray diffraction investigation of primary weld solidification in Fe-C-Al-Mn steel welds
journal, November 2002


Microstructure evolution characteristics of Inconel 625 alloy from selective laser melting to heat treatment
journal, September 2017


Real-Time Composition Monitoring Using Support Vector Regression of Laser-Induced Plasma for Laser Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2017

  • Song, Lijun; Huang, Wenkang; Han, Xu
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2016.2608318

A Review of Shaped Hole Turbine Film-Cooling Technology
journal, March 2005

  • Bunker, Ronald S.
  • Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 127, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.1860562

Evaluation of residual plastic strain distribution in dissimilar metal weld by hardness mapping
journal, October 2013


Microstructure and yield strength of SLM-fabricated CM247LC Ni-Superalloy
journal, April 2017


Laser Epitaxial Cladding of Ni-Base Single Crystal Superalloy
journal, June 2008


Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges☆
journal, August 2017

  • Nandwana, Peeyush; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek
  • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cossms.2016.12.002

Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel
journal, January 2013


Toward prediction of microstructural evolution during laser surface alloying
journal, April 2002

  • Babu, S. S.; David, S. A.; Martukanitz, R. P.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 33, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-002-0220-4

Computational modeling of residual stress formation during the electron beam melting process for Inconel 718
journal, July 2015


Additive manufacturing of metallic components – Process, structure and properties
journal, March 2018


Additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 by selective electron beam melting: Processing window and microstructure
journal, August 2014

  • Helmer, Harald Ernst; Körner, Carolin; Singer, Robert Friedrich
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 29, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2014.192

Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms
journal, May 2012


Plastic strain localization in metals: origins and consequences
journal, January 2014


An improved prediction of residual stresses and distortion in additive manufacturing
journal, January 2017


Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2016


Tailoring the thermal conductivity of the powder bed in Electron Beam Melting (EBM) Additive Manufacturing
journal, September 2017


Investigations of γ′, γ″ and δ precipitates in heat-treated Inconel 718 alloy fabricated by selective laser melting
journal, February 2018


Microstructures of Rene 142 nickel-based superalloy fabricated by electron beam melting
journal, June 2013


Electron beam welding – Techniques and trends – Review
journal, August 2016


The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing
journal, March 2016


Thermodynamic and kinetic models for describing microstructure evolution during joining of metals and alloys
journal, November 2009


Pressure loss and heat transfer performance for additively and conventionally manufactured pin fin arrays
journal, May 2017


Site specific control of crystallographic grain orientation through electron beam additive manufacturing
journal, November 2014


Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review
journal, April 2014


Quantification of thermomechanical conditions for weld solidification cracking
journal, February 1997

  • Feng, Z.; David, S. A.; Zacharia, T.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1179/stw.1997.2.1.11

Rationalization of Microstructure Heterogeneity in INCONEL 718 Builds Made by the Direct Laser Additive Manufacturing Process
journal, June 2014

  • Tian, Yuan; McAllister, Donald; Colijn, Hendrik
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 45, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-014-2370-6

Review of in-situ process monitoring and in-situ metrology for metal additive manufacturing
journal, April 2016


Optimisation of selective laser melting for a high temperature Ni-superalloy
journal, June 2015

  • Carter, Luke N.; Essa, Khamis; Attallah, Moataz M.
  • Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-06-2013-0063

Single track formation in selective laser melting of metal powders
journal, September 2010


Normalised model-based processing diagrams for additive layer manufacture of engineering alloys
journal, April 2016


Heat transfer and fluid flow during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel
journal, May 2003


Mechanisms of equiaxed grain formation in ferritic stainless steel gas tungsten arc welds
journal, May 1995


Hot cracking mechanism affecting a non-weldable Ni-based superalloy produced by selective electron Beam Melting
journal, January 2018


Simulation of metal additive manufacturing microstructures using kinetic Monte Carlo
journal, July 2017


Microstructural and mechanical approaches of the selective laser melting process applied to a nickel-base superalloy
journal, February 2012


Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting
journal, June 2016


Effect of heat treatment and hot isostatic pressing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion
journal, March 2017

  • Kreitcberg, Alena; Brailovski, Vladimir; Turenne, Sylvain
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 689
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2017.02.038

Scaling Roughness Effects on Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer of Additively Manufactured Channels
journal, September 2016

  • Stimpson, Curtis K.; Snyder, Jacob C.; Thole, Karen A.
  • Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 139, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4034555

Process optimisation of selective laser melting using energy density model for nickel based superalloys
journal, February 2016


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser Melted Inconel 718 Alloy
    journal, September 2019

    • Zhang, Qiang; Ren, Pan; Tu, Xiaohui
    • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 28, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-019-04309-3

    Grain Growth During Keyhole Mode Pulsed Laser Powder Bed Fusion of IN738LC
    journal, January 2020


    Effect of Interlayer Cooling Time, Constraint and Tool Path Strategy on Deformation of Large Components Made by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire
    journal, November 2019

    • Lee, Yousub; Bandari, Yashwanth; Nandwana, Peeyush
    • Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.3390/app9235115