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Title: Evaluation of Carbon Partitioning in New Generation of Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels

Abstract

In this study, quenching and partitioning (Q&P) and a novel combined process of hot straining (HS) and Q&P (HSQ&P) treatments have been applied to a TRIP-assisted steel in a Gleeble®3S50 thermomechanical simulator. The heat treatments involved intercritical annealing at 800 °C and a two-step Q&P heat treatment with a partitioning time of 100 seconds at 400 °C. The “optimum” quench temperature of 318 °C was selected according to the constrained carbon equilibrium (CCE) criterion. The effects of high-temperature deformation (isothermal and non-isothermal) on the carbon enrichment of austenite, carbide formation, and the strain-induced transformation to ferrite (SIT) mechanism were investigated. Carbon partitioning from supersaturated martensite into austenite and carbide precipitation were confirmed by means of atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Austenite carbon enrichment was clearly observed in all specimens, and in the HSQ&P samples, it was significantly greater than in Q&P, suggesting an additional carbon partitioning to austenite from ferrite formed by the deformation-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation (DIFT) phenomenon. By APT, the carbon accumulation at austenite/martensite interfaces was observed, with higher values for HSQ&P deformed isothermally (≈ 11 at. pct), when compared with non-isothermal HSQ&P (≈ 9.45 at. pct) and Q&P (≈ 7.6 at. pct). Finally,more » a local Mn enrichment was observed in a ferrite/austenite interface, indicating ferrite growth under local equilibrium with negligible partitioning (LENP).« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. University of São Paulo (Brazil). Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Technological University of Pereira (Columbia)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  4. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering
  5. University of São Paulo (Brazil). Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
  6. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1471849
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Publisher:
ASM International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Ariza, Edwan Anderson, Poplawsky, Jonathan, Guo, Wei, Unocic, Kinga A., Ramirez, Antonio J., Tschiptschin, André P., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Evaluation of Carbon Partitioning in New Generation of Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4743-8.
Ariza, Edwan Anderson, Poplawsky, Jonathan, Guo, Wei, Unocic, Kinga A., Ramirez, Antonio J., Tschiptschin, André P., & Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Evaluation of Carbon Partitioning in New Generation of Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels. United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4743-8.
Ariza, Edwan Anderson, Poplawsky, Jonathan, Guo, Wei, Unocic, Kinga A., Ramirez, Antonio J., Tschiptschin, André P., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Thu . "Evaluation of Carbon Partitioning in New Generation of Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels". United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4743-8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1471849.
@article{osti_1471849,
title = {Evaluation of Carbon Partitioning in New Generation of Quench and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels},
author = {Ariza, Edwan Anderson and Poplawsky, Jonathan and Guo, Wei and Unocic, Kinga A. and Ramirez, Antonio J. and Tschiptschin, André P. and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh},
abstractNote = {In this study, quenching and partitioning (Q&P) and a novel combined process of hot straining (HS) and Q&P (HSQ&P) treatments have been applied to a TRIP-assisted steel in a Gleeble®3S50 thermomechanical simulator. The heat treatments involved intercritical annealing at 800 °C and a two-step Q&P heat treatment with a partitioning time of 100 seconds at 400 °C. The “optimum” quench temperature of 318 °C was selected according to the constrained carbon equilibrium (CCE) criterion. The effects of high-temperature deformation (isothermal and non-isothermal) on the carbon enrichment of austenite, carbide formation, and the strain-induced transformation to ferrite (SIT) mechanism were investigated. Carbon partitioning from supersaturated martensite into austenite and carbide precipitation were confirmed by means of atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Austenite carbon enrichment was clearly observed in all specimens, and in the HSQ&P samples, it was significantly greater than in Q&P, suggesting an additional carbon partitioning to austenite from ferrite formed by the deformation-induced austenite-to-ferrite transformation (DIFT) phenomenon. By APT, the carbon accumulation at austenite/martensite interfaces was observed, with higher values for HSQ&P deformed isothermally (≈ 11 at. pct), when compared with non-isothermal HSQ&P (≈ 9.45 at. pct) and Q&P (≈ 7.6 at. pct). Finally, a local Mn enrichment was observed in a ferrite/austenite interface, indicating ferrite growth under local equilibrium with negligible partitioning (LENP).},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-018-4743-8},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
number = 10,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Improvement of tensile mechanical properties in a TRIP-assisted steel by controlling of crystallographic orientation via HSQ&P processes
journal, January 2018


The effect of strain induced ferrite transformation on the microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of a TRIP-assisted steel
journal, June 2014

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Micro and macro-mechanical behavior of a transformation-induced plasticity steel developed by thermomechanical processing followed by quenching and partitioning
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Carbon partitioning during quenching and partitioning heat treatment accompanied by carbide precipitation
journal, March 2015


Effect of Quenching and Partitioning with Hot Stamping on Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of AHSS
journal, June 2015

  • Chang, Ying; Li, Guanzhong; Wang, Cunyu
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 24, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-015-1579-x

Self-stabilization of untransformed austenite by hydrostatic pressure via martensitic transformation
journal, May 2016


Reply to comments on “On the definition of paraequilibrium and orthoequilibrium”
journal, January 2005


Martensitic microstructural transformations from the hot stamping, quenching and partitioning process
journal, February 2011


Deformation induced ferrite transformation in low carbon steels
journal, December 2005


The mechanical stability of retained austenite in low-alloyed TRIP steel under shear loading
journal, January 2014


Characterization of individual retained austenite grains and their stability in low-alloyed TRIP steels
journal, December 2007


Microstructural Evolution of a Low-Carbon Steel during Application of Quenching and Partitioning Heat Treatments after Partial Austenitization
journal, November 2008

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  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 40, Issue 1
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Application of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Techniques to Quenched and Partitioned Steels
journal, January 2011


Interaction of carbon partitioning, carbide precipitation and bainite formation during the Q&P process in a low C steel
journal, February 2016


Carbon Atom Re-Distribution during Quenching and Partitioning
journal, January 2014


Multi-phase microstructure design of a novel high strength TRIP steel through experimental methodology
journal, July 2014


Microstructure – Properties Relationships in Carbide-free Bainitic Steels
journal, January 2011


Effect of microstructure on the stability of retained austenite in transformation-induced-plasticity steels
journal, August 2004

  • Timokhina, I. B.; Hodgson, P. D.; Pereloma, E. V.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 35, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-006-0213-9

Manganese partitioning in dual-phase steel during annealing
journal, January 2000


Characterization of the Bake-hardening Behavior of Transformation Induced Plasticity and Dual-phase Steels Using Advanced Analytical Techniques
journal, January 2010


Wetting behaviour of laser textured Ti 3 SiC 2 surface with micro-grooved structures
journal, May 2015


Enhanced mechanical properties of a hot stamped advanced high-strength steel treated by quenching and partitioning process
journal, April 2011


Effect of fresh martensite on the stability of retained austenite in quenching and partitioning steel
journal, October 2014

  • De Knijf, Dorien; Petrov, Roumen; Föjer, Cecilia
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 615
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.07.054

Carbon partitioning to austenite from martensite or bainite during the quench and partition (Q&P) process: A critical assessment
journal, January 2008


A revised expression for the diffusivity of carbon in binary FeC austenite
journal, November 1986


Quenched and Partitioned Microstructures Produced via Gleeble Simulations of Hot-Strip Mill Cooling Practices
journal, March 2011

  • Thomas, G. A.; Speer, J. G.; Matlock, D. K.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 42, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0648-5

Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)
journal, August 2016


Effects of quenching-partitioning-tempering treatment on microstructure and mechanical performance of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed ultra-high strength steel
journal, April 2017


Optimizing the Morphology and Stability of Retained Austenite in a δ-TRIP Steel
journal, March 2014

  • Yi, H. L.; Chen, P.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 45, Issue 8
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Austenite Stability Effects on Tensile Behavior of Manganese-Enriched-Austenite Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel
journal, April 2011

  • Gibbs, P. J.; De Moor, E.; Merwin, M. J.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 42, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0687-y

The effect of morphology on the stability of retained austenite in a quenched and partitioned steel
journal, March 2013


In situ investigation of the martensitic transformation in Fe–12wt.%Ni–0.6wt.%C steel at subzero temperatures
journal, November 2013


Effect of Grain Size on Thermal and Mechanical Stability of Austenite in Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel
journal, January 2013


The stability of retained austenite at different locations during straining of I&Q&P steel
journal, July 2016


Nanoscale microstructural characterization of a nanobainitic steel
journal, August 2011


Influence of bainite reaction on the kinetics of carbon redistribution during the Quenching and Partitioning process
journal, January 2018


Microstructures and hardness of as-quenched martensites (0.1–0.5%C)
journal, August 2011


Influence of alloying elements on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties in quenched and partitioned steels
journal, April 2014

  • Maheswari, N.; Chowdhury, S. Ghosh; Kumar, K. C. Hari
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  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.01.066

Bainite formation influenced by large stress
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Overview of the current issues in austenite to ferrite transformation and the role of migrating interfaces therein for low alloyed steels
journal, June 2015


Nano-scale observation on the transformation behavior and mechanical stability of individual retained austenite in CMnSiAl TRIP steels
journal, March 2015


In situ site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography
journal, February 2007


Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae
journal, October 2013


Transformation kinetics and density models of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels
journal, May 2016


Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a low-carbon quenching and partitioning steel after partial and full austenitization
journal, August 2016

  • Li, Wan-song; Gao, Hong-ye; Nakashima, Hideharu
  • International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12613-016-1306-0

Morphological Characteristics of Retained Austenite in 0.362C–1.38Si–1.24Mn Steel Processed by One-Step Quenching and Partitioning
journal, November 2016


On the definitions of paraequilibrium and orthoequilibrium
journal, March 2004


The dynamic transformation of deformed austenite at temperatures above the Ae3
journal, April 2013


Carbon partitioning into austenite after martensite transformation
journal, May 2003


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Morphological Characteristics of Retained Austenite in 0.362C–1.38Si–1.24Mn Steel Processed by One-Step Quenching and Partitioning
    journal, November 2016


    Effect of microstructure on the stability of retained austenite in transformation-induced-plasticity steels
    journal, August 2004

    • Timokhina, I. B.; Hodgson, P. D.; Pereloma, E. V.
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 35, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-006-0213-9

    Microstructural Evolution of a Low-Carbon Steel during Application of Quenching and Partitioning Heat Treatments after Partial Austenitization
    journal, November 2008

    • Santofimia, M. J.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 40, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-008-9701-4

    Quenched and Partitioned Microstructures Produced via Gleeble Simulations of Hot-Strip Mill Cooling Practices
    journal, March 2011

    • Thomas, G. A.; Speer, J. G.; Matlock, D. K.
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 42, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0648-5

    Austenite Stability Effects on Tensile Behavior of Manganese-Enriched-Austenite Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel
    journal, April 2011

    • Gibbs, P. J.; De Moor, E.; Merwin, M. J.
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 42, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0687-y

    Optimizing the Morphology and Stability of Retained Austenite in a δ-TRIP Steel
    journal, March 2014

    • Yi, H. L.; Chen, P.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 45, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-014-2267-4

    Effect of Quenching and Partitioning with Hot Stamping on Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of AHSS
    journal, June 2015

    • Chang, Ying; Li, Guanzhong; Wang, Cunyu
    • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 24, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-015-1579-x

    Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a low-carbon quenching and partitioning steel after partial and full austenitization
    journal, August 2016

    • Li, Wan-song; Gao, Hong-ye; Nakashima, Hideharu
    • International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12613-016-1306-0

    A revised expression for the diffusivity of carbon in binary FeC austenite
    journal, November 1986


    Characterization of individual retained austenite grains and their stability in low-alloyed TRIP steels
    journal, December 2007


    Carbon partitioning to austenite from martensite or bainite during the quench and partition (Q&P) process: A critical assessment
    journal, January 2008


    Nanoscale microstructural characterization of a nanobainitic steel
    journal, August 2011


    Microstructures and hardness of as-quenched martensites (0.1–0.5%C)
    journal, August 2011


    The dynamic transformation of deformed austenite at temperatures above the Ae3
    journal, April 2013


    Carbon partitioning during quenching and partitioning heat treatment accompanied by carbide precipitation
    journal, March 2015


    Interaction of carbon partitioning, carbide precipitation and bainite formation during the Q&P process in a low C steel
    journal, February 2016


    Transformation kinetics and density models of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels
    journal, May 2016


    Self-stabilization of untransformed austenite by hydrostatic pressure via martensitic transformation
    journal, May 2016


    Influence of bainite reaction on the kinetics of carbon redistribution during the Quenching and Partitioning process
    journal, January 2018


    Deformation induced ferrite transformation in low carbon steels
    journal, December 2005


    In situ investigation of the martensitic transformation in Fe–12wt.%Ni–0.6wt.%C steel at subzero temperatures
    journal, November 2013


    Martensitic microstructural transformations from the hot stamping, quenching and partitioning process
    journal, February 2011


    Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae
    journal, October 2013


    The mechanical stability of retained austenite in low-alloyed TRIP steel under shear loading
    journal, January 2014


    Influence of alloying elements on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties in quenched and partitioned steels
    journal, April 2014

    • Maheswari, N.; Chowdhury, S. Ghosh; Kumar, K. C. Hari
    • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 600
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.01.066

    The effect of strain induced ferrite transformation on the microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of a TRIP-assisted steel
    journal, June 2014

    • Mohamadizadeh, A.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.
    • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 607
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.04.044

    Multi-phase microstructure design of a novel high strength TRIP steel through experimental methodology
    journal, July 2014


    Effect of fresh martensite on the stability of retained austenite in quenching and partitioning steel
    journal, October 2014

    • De Knijf, Dorien; Petrov, Roumen; Föjer, Cecilia
    • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 615
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2014.07.054

    Nano-scale observation on the transformation behavior and mechanical stability of individual retained austenite in CMnSiAl TRIP steels
    journal, March 2015


    Micro and macro-mechanical behavior of a transformation-induced plasticity steel developed by thermomechanical processing followed by quenching and partitioning
    journal, January 2016


    Characterization and methodology for calculating the mechanical properties of a TRIP-steel submitted to hot stamping and quenching and partitioning (Q&P)
    journal, August 2016


    The stability of retained austenite at different locations during straining of I&Q&P steel
    journal, July 2016


    Effects of quenching-partitioning-tempering treatment on microstructure and mechanical performance of Nb-V-Ti microalloyed ultra-high strength steel
    journal, April 2017


    Improvement of tensile mechanical properties in a TRIP-assisted steel by controlling of crystallographic orientation via HSQ&P processes
    journal, January 2018


    Overview of the current issues in austenite to ferrite transformation and the role of migrating interfaces therein for low alloyed steels
    journal, June 2015


    On the definitions of paraequilibrium and orthoequilibrium
    journal, March 2004


    Reply to comments on “On the definition of paraequilibrium and orthoequilibrium”
    journal, January 2005


    Enhanced mechanical properties of a hot stamped advanced high-strength steel treated by quenching and partitioning process
    journal, April 2011


    The effect of morphology on the stability of retained austenite in a quenched and partitioned steel
    journal, March 2013


    In situ site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography
    journal, February 2007


    Characterization of the Bake-hardening Behavior of Transformation Induced Plasticity and Dual-phase Steels Using Advanced Analytical Techniques
    journal, January 2010


    Microstructure – Properties Relationships in Carbide-free Bainitic Steels
    journal, January 2011


    Effect of Grain Size on Thermal and Mechanical Stability of Austenite in Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel
    journal, January 2013


    Carbon Atom Re-Distribution during Quenching and Partitioning
    journal, January 2014