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Title: High Performance Cathode Recovery from Different Electric Vehicle Recycling Streams

Abstract

For environmental and sustainability reasons, spent Li-ion batteries must be recovered and recycled so that the full promise of an electrified future is realized. Li-ion battery recycling streams pose a serious challenge to all existing recycling technologies due to their unknown and diverse chemistry. In this work, four representative recycling streams were used to demonstrate the flexibility of the recycling process developed at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) to accommodate a variable feed and generate consistent quality cathode material, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111). Ni1/3Mn1/3CO1/3(OH)2 precursors derived from four recycling streams were produced by a hydroxide co-precipitation method in a continuous stirred tank reactor. It took two days for the co-precipitation reaction to reach steady state. A possible evolution of the precursor particles up to the steady state was proposed. Both the precursors and cathodes from these four different recycling streams exhibit similar morphology, particle size distribution, and tap density. Moreover, these recovered cathode materials display similar electrochemical properties. Surprisingly these recovered NMC111s have better rate capability than a commercial NMC111 prepared from virgin materials. The different chemical compositions of the incoming recycling streams were shown to have little observed effect on the recovered precursor and resultant cathode material generated by the WPI-developed recyclingmore » process with advantages including no sorting, low temperature, and high quality recovered battery materials. Therefore, the WPI-developed process applies to different spent Li-ion battery waste streams and is therefore general.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Worcester Polytechnic Inst. (WPI), Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. A123 Systems LLC, Waltham, MA (United States)
  3. Battery Resourcers Inc, Worcester, MA (United States)
  4. Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Research and Innovation Center and Energy Storage and Materials Research
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Worcester Polytechnic Inst. (WPI), Worcester, MA (United States); National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, Morgantown, WV, and Albany, OR (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); US Advanced Battery Consortium LLC (USABC LLC), Southfield, MI (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1471587
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0006250
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2168-0485
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; Lithium ion battery recycling; Precursor; Cathode Materials; Recycling streams; Coprecipitation; Rate capability

Citation Formats

Zheng, Zhangfeng, Chen, Mengyuan, Wang, Qiang, Zhang, Yubin, Ma, Xiaotu, Shen, Chao, Xu, Dapeng, Liu, Jin, Liu, Yangtao, Gionet, Paul, O'Connor, Ian Edward, Pinnell, Leslie, Wang, Jun, Gratz, Eric, Arsenault, Renata, and Wang, Yan. High Performance Cathode Recovery from Different Electric Vehicle Recycling Streams. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02405.
Zheng, Zhangfeng, Chen, Mengyuan, Wang, Qiang, Zhang, Yubin, Ma, Xiaotu, Shen, Chao, Xu, Dapeng, Liu, Jin, Liu, Yangtao, Gionet, Paul, O'Connor, Ian Edward, Pinnell, Leslie, Wang, Jun, Gratz, Eric, Arsenault, Renata, & Wang, Yan. High Performance Cathode Recovery from Different Electric Vehicle Recycling Streams. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02405
Zheng, Zhangfeng, Chen, Mengyuan, Wang, Qiang, Zhang, Yubin, Ma, Xiaotu, Shen, Chao, Xu, Dapeng, Liu, Jin, Liu, Yangtao, Gionet, Paul, O'Connor, Ian Edward, Pinnell, Leslie, Wang, Jun, Gratz, Eric, Arsenault, Renata, and Wang, Yan. Thu . "High Performance Cathode Recovery from Different Electric Vehicle Recycling Streams". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02405. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1471587.
@article{osti_1471587,
title = {High Performance Cathode Recovery from Different Electric Vehicle Recycling Streams},
author = {Zheng, Zhangfeng and Chen, Mengyuan and Wang, Qiang and Zhang, Yubin and Ma, Xiaotu and Shen, Chao and Xu, Dapeng and Liu, Jin and Liu, Yangtao and Gionet, Paul and O'Connor, Ian Edward and Pinnell, Leslie and Wang, Jun and Gratz, Eric and Arsenault, Renata and Wang, Yan},
abstractNote = {For environmental and sustainability reasons, spent Li-ion batteries must be recovered and recycled so that the full promise of an electrified future is realized. Li-ion battery recycling streams pose a serious challenge to all existing recycling technologies due to their unknown and diverse chemistry. In this work, four representative recycling streams were used to demonstrate the flexibility of the recycling process developed at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) to accommodate a variable feed and generate consistent quality cathode material, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111). Ni1/3Mn1/3CO1/3(OH)2 precursors derived from four recycling streams were produced by a hydroxide co-precipitation method in a continuous stirred tank reactor. It took two days for the co-precipitation reaction to reach steady state. A possible evolution of the precursor particles up to the steady state was proposed. Both the precursors and cathodes from these four different recycling streams exhibit similar morphology, particle size distribution, and tap density. Moreover, these recovered cathode materials display similar electrochemical properties. Surprisingly these recovered NMC111s have better rate capability than a commercial NMC111 prepared from virgin materials. The different chemical compositions of the incoming recycling streams were shown to have little observed effect on the recovered precursor and resultant cathode material generated by the WPI-developed recycling process with advantages including no sorting, low temperature, and high quality recovered battery materials. Therefore, the WPI-developed process applies to different spent Li-ion battery waste streams and is therefore general.},
doi = {10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02405},
journal = {ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering},
number = 11,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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Cited by: 6 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig.1 Fig.1: Schematic representation of four different recycling streams, and the process to obtain the cathode material NMC111 from spent lithium ion batteries

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Works referenced in this record:

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Progress and Status of Hydrometallurgical and Direct Recycling of Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond
journal, February 2020

  • Larouche, François; Tedjar, Farouk; Amouzegar, Kamyab
  • Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 3
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