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Title: Background Free‐Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed‐Phase Cloud Conditions

Abstract

Clouds containing ice are vital for precipitation formation and are important in determining the Earth's radiative budget. However, primary formation of ice in clouds is not fully understood. In the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs), the phase change to ice is promoted, but identification and quantification of INPs in a natural environment remains challenging because of their low numbers. In this paper, we quantify INP number concentrations in the free troposphere (FT) as measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ), during the winter, spring, and summer of the years 2014–2017. INPs were measured at conditions relevant for mixed–phase cloud formation at T = 241/242 K. To date, this is the longest timeline of semiregular measurements akin to online INP monitoring at this site and sampling conditions. We find that INP concentrations in the background FT are on average capped at 10/stdL (liter of air at standard conditions [ T = 273 K and p = 1013 hPa]) with an interquartile range of 0.4–9.6/stdL, as compared to measurements during times when other air mass origins (e.g., Sahara or marine boundary layer) prevailed. Elevated concentrations were measured in the field campaigns of 2016, which might be due to enhancedmore » influence from Saharan dust and marine boundary layer air arriving at the JFJ. In conclusion, the upper limit of INP concentrations in the background FT is supported by measurements performed at similar conditions, but at different locations in the FT, where we find INP concentrations to be below 13/stdL most of the time.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [9]
  1. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate ScienceETHZ Zurich Switzerland, Now at Atmospheric Aerosol ResearchInstitute for Meteorology and Climate Research, KIT Karlsruhe Germany
  2. Department of Atmospheric ScienceColorado State University Fort Collins CO USA
  3. Department of Atmospheric ScienceColorado State University Fort Collins CO USA, Now at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland WA USA
  4. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate ScienceETHZ Zurich Switzerland, Now at Institute for Atmospheric PhysicsGerman Aerospace Center Oberpfaffenhofen‐Wessling Germany
  5. Institute for Earth ScienceHebrew University Jerusalem Israel, Now at Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesWeizmann Institute of Science Rehovot Israel
  6. Laboratory of Atmospheric ChemistryPaul Scherrer Institute Villigen Switzerland
  7. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Duebendorf Switzerland
  8. Department of ChemistryUniversity of Toronto Toronto Ontario Canada
  9. Institute for Atmospheric and Climate ScienceETHZ Zurich Switzerland
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1471435
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1472159; OSTI ID: 1475199
Grant/Contract Number:  
[DE‐SC0014354; 240627; AC05-76RL01830; 654109; 603445; H2020-INFRAIA-2014-2015; FP7/2007-2013; SC0014354; AGS1358495; 15.0159-1; MeteoSwiss GAW-CH+ 2014-2017]
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Journal Volume: 123 Journal Issue: 18]; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; atmospheric ice nucleation; mixed‐phase clouds; free troposphere

Citation Formats

Lacher, Larissa, DeMott, Paul J., Levin, Ezra J. T., Suski, Kaitlyn J., Boose, Yvonne, Zipori, Assaf, Herrmann, Erik, Bukowiecki, Nicolas, Steinbacher, Martin, Gute, Ellen, Abbatt, Jonathan P. D., Lohmann, Ulrike, and Kanji, Zamin A. Background Free‐Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed‐Phase Cloud Conditions. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1029/2018JD028338.
Lacher, Larissa, DeMott, Paul J., Levin, Ezra J. T., Suski, Kaitlyn J., Boose, Yvonne, Zipori, Assaf, Herrmann, Erik, Bukowiecki, Nicolas, Steinbacher, Martin, Gute, Ellen, Abbatt, Jonathan P. D., Lohmann, Ulrike, & Kanji, Zamin A. Background Free‐Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed‐Phase Cloud Conditions. United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD028338.
Lacher, Larissa, DeMott, Paul J., Levin, Ezra J. T., Suski, Kaitlyn J., Boose, Yvonne, Zipori, Assaf, Herrmann, Erik, Bukowiecki, Nicolas, Steinbacher, Martin, Gute, Ellen, Abbatt, Jonathan P. D., Lohmann, Ulrike, and Kanji, Zamin A. Tue . "Background Free‐Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed‐Phase Cloud Conditions". United States. doi:10.1029/2018JD028338.
@article{osti_1471435,
title = {Background Free‐Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed‐Phase Cloud Conditions},
author = {Lacher, Larissa and DeMott, Paul J. and Levin, Ezra J. T. and Suski, Kaitlyn J. and Boose, Yvonne and Zipori, Assaf and Herrmann, Erik and Bukowiecki, Nicolas and Steinbacher, Martin and Gute, Ellen and Abbatt, Jonathan P. D. and Lohmann, Ulrike and Kanji, Zamin A.},
abstractNote = {Clouds containing ice are vital for precipitation formation and are important in determining the Earth's radiative budget. However, primary formation of ice in clouds is not fully understood. In the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs), the phase change to ice is promoted, but identification and quantification of INPs in a natural environment remains challenging because of their low numbers. In this paper, we quantify INP number concentrations in the free troposphere (FT) as measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ), during the winter, spring, and summer of the years 2014–2017. INPs were measured at conditions relevant for mixed–phase cloud formation at T = 241/242 K. To date, this is the longest timeline of semiregular measurements akin to online INP monitoring at this site and sampling conditions. We find that INP concentrations in the background FT are on average capped at 10/stdL (liter of air at standard conditions [T = 273 K and p = 1013 hPa]) with an interquartile range of 0.4–9.6/stdL, as compared to measurements during times when other air mass origins (e.g., Sahara or marine boundary layer) prevailed. Elevated concentrations were measured in the field campaigns of 2016, which might be due to enhanced influence from Saharan dust and marine boundary layer air arriving at the JFJ. In conclusion, the upper limit of INP concentrations in the background FT is supported by measurements performed at similar conditions, but at different locations in the FT, where we find INP concentrations to be below 13/stdL most of the time.},
doi = {10.1029/2018JD028338},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = [18],
volume = [123],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1029/2018JD028338

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Cited by: 4 works
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