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Title: Direct measurement of energy loss due to aging effects in the condensed phase explosive PBX 9404

Abstract

The explosive performance of PBX 9404, a condensed phase explosive with HMX and nitrocellulose reactive ingredients, was evaluated using the detonation cylinder expansion test after it had been naturally aged for over 46 years. Nitrocellulose is known to chemically degrade with age, but the corresponding effect on explosive performance is currently unknown. Two new cylinder tests were fielded with the oldest known PBX 9404 explosive (>46 years) and the data was compared with prior PBX 9404 cylinder test data. A method for comparing wall motion data collected by streak camera and laser interferometry diagnostics was also introduced. Analysis of the cylinder motion indicated that the aged explosive exhibits decreased performance, which varied with cylinder expansion radius and product specific volume. This energy decrement was found to be 0.8% of the total initial explosive energy per decade of age at a product volume of 7.0 cc/g. In conclusion, the measured energy decrement in explosives older than 37 years exceeds the chemical energy content of nitrocellulose, indicating that nitrocellulose decomposition radicals are likely degrading the normally stable HMX molecules during the aging process.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1471355
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-30738
Journal ID: ISSN 1540-7489
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 3; Conference: International Combustion Symposium, Dublin (Ireland), 29 Jul - 03 Aug 2018; Journal ID: ISSN 1540-7489
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Detonation; Cylinder Test; Equation of state

Citation Formats

Jackson, Scott I., Hill, Larry Glenn, and Anderson, Eric Karl. Direct measurement of energy loss due to aging effects in the condensed phase explosive PBX 9404. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.174.
Jackson, Scott I., Hill, Larry Glenn, & Anderson, Eric Karl. Direct measurement of energy loss due to aging effects in the condensed phase explosive PBX 9404. United States. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.174.
Jackson, Scott I., Hill, Larry Glenn, and Anderson, Eric Karl. Fri . "Direct measurement of energy loss due to aging effects in the condensed phase explosive PBX 9404". United States. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.174. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1471355.
@article{osti_1471355,
title = {Direct measurement of energy loss due to aging effects in the condensed phase explosive PBX 9404},
author = {Jackson, Scott I. and Hill, Larry Glenn and Anderson, Eric Karl},
abstractNote = {The explosive performance of PBX 9404, a condensed phase explosive with HMX and nitrocellulose reactive ingredients, was evaluated using the detonation cylinder expansion test after it had been naturally aged for over 46 years. Nitrocellulose is known to chemically degrade with age, but the corresponding effect on explosive performance is currently unknown. Two new cylinder tests were fielded with the oldest known PBX 9404 explosive (>46 years) and the data was compared with prior PBX 9404 cylinder test data. A method for comparing wall motion data collected by streak camera and laser interferometry diagnostics was also introduced. Analysis of the cylinder motion indicated that the aged explosive exhibits decreased performance, which varied with cylinder expansion radius and product specific volume. This energy decrement was found to be 0.8% of the total initial explosive energy per decade of age at a product volume of 7.0 cc/g. In conclusion, the measured energy decrement in explosives older than 37 years exceeds the chemical energy content of nitrocellulose, indicating that nitrocellulose decomposition radicals are likely degrading the normally stable HMX molecules during the aging process.},
doi = {10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.174},
journal = {Proceedings of the Combustion Institute},
number = 3,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

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