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Title: Observation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser

Abstract

The complex physics of the interaction between short-pulse ultrahigh-intensity lasers and solids is so far difficult to access experimentally, and the development of compact laser-based next-generation secondary radiation sources, e.g., for tumor therapy, laboratory astrophysics, and fusion, is hindered by the lack of diagnostic capabilities to probe the complex electron dynamics and competing instabilities. At present, the fundamental plasma dynamics that occur at the nanometer and femtosecond scales during the laser-solid interaction can only be elucidated by simulations. Here we show experimentally that small-angle x-ray scattering of femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses facilitates new capabilities for direct in situ characterization of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions at solid density that allows simultaneous nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution, directly verifying numerical simulations of the electron density dynamics during the short-pulse high-intensity laser irradiation of a solid density target. For laser-driven grating targets, we measure the solid density plasma expansion and observe the generation of a transient grating structure in front of the preinscribed grating, due to plasma expansion. The density maxima are interleaved, forming a double frequency grating in x-ray free-electron laser projection for a short time, which is a hitherto unknown effect. We expect that our results will pave themore » way for novel time-resolved studies, guiding the development of future laser-driven particle and photon sources from solid targets.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [5];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [6];  [6] more »;  [1];  [7];  [1];  [8];  [9];  [2];  [2] « less
  1. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)
  2. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technical University Dresden (Germany)
  3. European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany)
  4. European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  5. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Osaka Univ. (Japan). Open and Transdisciplinary Research Institute
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Universität Siegen (Germany)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Freidrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena (Germany)
  9. Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1470600
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1475394
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; FWP 100182; 03Z1O511; 654220; 654148
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review. X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Kluge, Thomas, Rödel, Melanie, Metzkes-Ng, Josefine, Pelka, Alexander, Garcia, Alejandro Laso, Prencipe, Irene, Rehwald, Martin, Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki, McBride, Emma E., Schönherr, Tommy, Garten, Marco, Hartley, Nicholas J., Zacharias, Malte, Grenzer, Jörg, Erbe, Artur, Georgiev, Yordan M., Galtier, Eric, Nam, Inhyuk, Lee, Hae Ja, Glenzer, Siegfried, Bussmann, Michael, Gutt, Christian, Zeil, Karl, Rödel, Christian, Hübner, Uwe, Schramm, Ulrich, and Cowan, Thomas E. Observation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevx.8.031068.
Kluge, Thomas, Rödel, Melanie, Metzkes-Ng, Josefine, Pelka, Alexander, Garcia, Alejandro Laso, Prencipe, Irene, Rehwald, Martin, Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki, McBride, Emma E., Schönherr, Tommy, Garten, Marco, Hartley, Nicholas J., Zacharias, Malte, Grenzer, Jörg, Erbe, Artur, Georgiev, Yordan M., Galtier, Eric, Nam, Inhyuk, Lee, Hae Ja, Glenzer, Siegfried, Bussmann, Michael, Gutt, Christian, Zeil, Karl, Rödel, Christian, Hübner, Uwe, Schramm, Ulrich, & Cowan, Thomas E. Observation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevx.8.031068.
Kluge, Thomas, Rödel, Melanie, Metzkes-Ng, Josefine, Pelka, Alexander, Garcia, Alejandro Laso, Prencipe, Irene, Rehwald, Martin, Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki, McBride, Emma E., Schönherr, Tommy, Garten, Marco, Hartley, Nicholas J., Zacharias, Malte, Grenzer, Jörg, Erbe, Artur, Georgiev, Yordan M., Galtier, Eric, Nam, Inhyuk, Lee, Hae Ja, Glenzer, Siegfried, Bussmann, Michael, Gutt, Christian, Zeil, Karl, Rödel, Christian, Hübner, Uwe, Schramm, Ulrich, and Cowan, Thomas E. Thu . "Observation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevx.8.031068.
@article{osti_1470600,
title = {Observation of Ultrafast Solid-Density Plasma Dynamics Using Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a Free-Electron Laser},
author = {Kluge, Thomas and Rödel, Melanie and Metzkes-Ng, Josefine and Pelka, Alexander and Garcia, Alejandro Laso and Prencipe, Irene and Rehwald, Martin and Nakatsutsumi, Motoaki and McBride, Emma E. and Schönherr, Tommy and Garten, Marco and Hartley, Nicholas J. and Zacharias, Malte and Grenzer, Jörg and Erbe, Artur and Georgiev, Yordan M. and Galtier, Eric and Nam, Inhyuk and Lee, Hae Ja and Glenzer, Siegfried and Bussmann, Michael and Gutt, Christian and Zeil, Karl and Rödel, Christian and Hübner, Uwe and Schramm, Ulrich and Cowan, Thomas E.},
abstractNote = {The complex physics of the interaction between short-pulse ultrahigh-intensity lasers and solids is so far difficult to access experimentally, and the development of compact laser-based next-generation secondary radiation sources, e.g., for tumor therapy, laboratory astrophysics, and fusion, is hindered by the lack of diagnostic capabilities to probe the complex electron dynamics and competing instabilities. At present, the fundamental plasma dynamics that occur at the nanometer and femtosecond scales during the laser-solid interaction can only be elucidated by simulations. Here we show experimentally that small-angle x-ray scattering of femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses facilitates new capabilities for direct in situ characterization of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions at solid density that allows simultaneous nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution, directly verifying numerical simulations of the electron density dynamics during the short-pulse high-intensity laser irradiation of a solid density target. For laser-driven grating targets, we measure the solid density plasma expansion and observe the generation of a transient grating structure in front of the preinscribed grating, due to plasma expansion. The density maxima are interleaved, forming a double frequency grating in x-ray free-electron laser projection for a short time, which is a hitherto unknown effect. We expect that our results will pave the way for novel time-resolved studies, guiding the development of future laser-driven particle and photon sources from solid targets.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevx.8.031068},
journal = {Physical Review. X},
number = 3,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/physrevx.8.031068

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Schematic of the SAXS experimental setup. Left: The HI laser pulse is focused on a silicon grating target under 45° parallel to the grating ridges and leading to a high-intensity laser-plasma interaction. The XFEL pulses probe the laser-plasma dynamics under 90°. The inset shows an electron scanning microscopymore » image of a representative target sample with grating period 500 nm (targets were covered with Cu only for imaging). Right: Examples of scattering patterns of a grating with period g ≅ 300 nm and ridge width b ≅ 150 nm for different XFEL delays (rotated by 90°, normalized to the respective intensity in the second scattering peak—the first one was sometimes oversaturated).« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.