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Title: Chemically Responsive Elastomers Exhibiting Unity-Order Refractive Index Modulation

Abstract

Chameleons are masters of light, expertly changing their color, pattern, and reflectivity in response to their environment. Engineered materials that share this tunability can be transformative, enabling active camouflage, tunable holograms, and novel colorimetric medical sensors. Although progress has been made in creating artificial chameleon skin, existing schemes often require external power, are not continuously tunable, and may prove too stiff or bulky for applications. In this work, a chemically tunable, large-area metamaterial is demonstrated that accesses a wide range of colors and refractive indices. An ordered monolayer of nanoresonators is fabricated, then its optical response is dynamically tuned by infiltrating its polymer substrate with solvents. The material shows a strong magnetic response with a dependence on resonator spacing that leads to a highly tunable effective permittivity, permeability, and refractive index spanning negative and positive values. The unity-order index tuning exceeds that of traditional electro-optic and photochromic materials and is robust to cycling, providing a path toward programmable optical elements and responsive light routing.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  4. Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) (Spain)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1470403
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1416393
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001293
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 7; Related Information: LMI partners with California Institute of Technology (lead); Harvard University; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
elastomers; ellipsometry; metamaterials; refractive index

Citation Formats

Wu, Di M., Solomon, Michelle L., Naik, Gururaj V., García-Etxarri, Aitzol, Lawrence, Mark, Salleo, Alberto, and Dionne, Jennifer A. Chemically Responsive Elastomers Exhibiting Unity-Order Refractive Index Modulation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201703912.
Wu, Di M., Solomon, Michelle L., Naik, Gururaj V., García-Etxarri, Aitzol, Lawrence, Mark, Salleo, Alberto, & Dionne, Jennifer A. Chemically Responsive Elastomers Exhibiting Unity-Order Refractive Index Modulation. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703912.
Wu, Di M., Solomon, Michelle L., Naik, Gururaj V., García-Etxarri, Aitzol, Lawrence, Mark, Salleo, Alberto, and Dionne, Jennifer A. Mon . "Chemically Responsive Elastomers Exhibiting Unity-Order Refractive Index Modulation". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703912. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1470403.
@article{osti_1470403,
title = {Chemically Responsive Elastomers Exhibiting Unity-Order Refractive Index Modulation},
author = {Wu, Di M. and Solomon, Michelle L. and Naik, Gururaj V. and García-Etxarri, Aitzol and Lawrence, Mark and Salleo, Alberto and Dionne, Jennifer A.},
abstractNote = {Chameleons are masters of light, expertly changing their color, pattern, and reflectivity in response to their environment. Engineered materials that share this tunability can be transformative, enabling active camouflage, tunable holograms, and novel colorimetric medical sensors. Although progress has been made in creating artificial chameleon skin, existing schemes often require external power, are not continuously tunable, and may prove too stiff or bulky for applications. In this work, a chemically tunable, large-area metamaterial is demonstrated that accesses a wide range of colors and refractive indices. An ordered monolayer of nanoresonators is fabricated, then its optical response is dynamically tuned by infiltrating its polymer substrate with solvents. The material shows a strong magnetic response with a dependence on resonator spacing that leads to a highly tunable effective permittivity, permeability, and refractive index spanning negative and positive values. The unity-order index tuning exceeds that of traditional electro-optic and photochromic materials and is robust to cycling, providing a path toward programmable optical elements and responsive light routing.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201703912},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = 7,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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