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Title: MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens

Abstract

Varifocal lenses, conventionally implemented by changing the axial distance between multiple optical elements, have a wide range of applications in imaging and optical beam scanning. The use of conventional bulky refractive elements makes these varifocal lenses large, slow, and limits their tunability. Metasurfaces, a new category of lithographically defined diffractive devices, enable thin and lightweight optical elements with precisely engineered phase profiles. Here we demonstrate tunable metasurface doublets, based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), with more than 60 diopters (about 4%) change in the optical power upon a 1-μm movement of one metasurface, and a scanning frequency that can potentially reach a few kHz. They can also be integrated with a third metasurface to make compact microscopes (~1 mm thick) with a large corrected field of view (~500 μm or 40 degrees) and fast axial scanning for 3D imaging. This paves the way towards MEMS-integrated metasurfaces as a platform for tunable and reconfigurable optics.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC), Washington, D.C. (United States). Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1470397
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001293
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: LMI partners with California Institute of Technology (lead); Harvard University; University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 42 ENGINEERING; solar (photovoltaic); solid state lighting; phonons; thermal conductivity; electrodes - solar; materials and chemistry by design; optics; synthesis (novel materials); synthesis (self-assembly)

Citation Formats

Arbabi, Ehsan, Arbabi, Amir, Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Horie, Yu, Faraji-Dana, Mohammad Sadegh, and Faraon, Andrei. MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03155-6.
Arbabi, Ehsan, Arbabi, Amir, Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Horie, Yu, Faraji-Dana, Mohammad Sadegh, & Faraon, Andrei. MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03155-6.
Arbabi, Ehsan, Arbabi, Amir, Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Horie, Yu, Faraji-Dana, Mohammad Sadegh, and Faraon, Andrei. Fri . "MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03155-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1470397.
@article{osti_1470397,
title = {MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens},
author = {Arbabi, Ehsan and Arbabi, Amir and Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa and Horie, Yu and Faraji-Dana, Mohammad Sadegh and Faraon, Andrei},
abstractNote = {Varifocal lenses, conventionally implemented by changing the axial distance between multiple optical elements, have a wide range of applications in imaging and optical beam scanning. The use of conventional bulky refractive elements makes these varifocal lenses large, slow, and limits their tunability. Metasurfaces, a new category of lithographically defined diffractive devices, enable thin and lightweight optical elements with precisely engineered phase profiles. Here we demonstrate tunable metasurface doublets, based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), with more than 60 diopters (about 4%) change in the optical power upon a 1-μm movement of one metasurface, and a scanning frequency that can potentially reach a few kHz. They can also be integrated with a third metasurface to make compact microscopes (~1 mm thick) with a large corrected field of view (~500 μm or 40 degrees) and fast axial scanning for 3D imaging. This paves the way towards MEMS-integrated metasurfaces as a platform for tunable and reconfigurable optics.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-03155-6},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Cited by: 144 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1 : Schematic illustration of the tunable doublet and design graphs. a Schematic illustration of the proposed tunable lens, comprised of a stationary lens on a substrate, and a moving lens on a membrane. With the correct design, a small change in the distance between the two lenses (Δxmore » ~ 1 μm) results in a large change in the focal distance (Δf ~ 35 μm). (Insets: schematics of the moving and stationary lenses showing the electrostatic actuation contacts.) b The first and c second mechanical resonances of the membrane at frequencies of ~2.6 and ~5.6 kHz, respectively. The scale bars are 100 μm. d Simulated transmission amplitude and phase for a uniform array of α-Si nano-posts on a ~213-nm-thick SiNx membrane versus the nano-post width. The nano-posts are 530 nm tall and are placed on the vertices of a square lattice with a lattice constant of 320 nm. e Simulated transmission amplitude and phase for a uniform array of α-Si nano-posts on a glass substrate versus the nano-post width. The nano-posts are 615 nm tall and are placed on the vertices of a square lattice with a lattice constant of 320 nm. FS: Fused silica« less

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