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Title: Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films

In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiN x layer combined with an ALD Al 2O 3/HfO x nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10 –5 g/m 2 day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10 –4 g/m 2 day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to bemore » three times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10 –4 g/m 2 day. Furthermore, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0004946; DE - EE0004946
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
The Leland Stanford Junior Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY
OSTI Identifier:
1469699
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1241569

Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng -Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, and Graham, Samuel. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4942510.
Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng -Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, & Graham, Samuel. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4942510.
Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng -Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, and Graham, Samuel. 2016. "Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4942510. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469699.
@article{osti_1469699,
title = {Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films},
author = {Kim, Hyungchul and Singh, Ankit Kumar and Wang, Cheng -Yin and Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek and Kippelen, Bernard and Graham, Samuel},
abstractNote = {In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiNx layer combined with an ALD Al2O3/HfOx nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10–5 g/m2 day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10–4 g/m2 day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to be three times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10–4 g/m2 day. Furthermore, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4942510},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 3,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}