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Title: Predicting the counter-intuitive stress relaxation behavior of glass forming materials

Abstract

The ability to relax a macroscopically applied stress is often associated with molecular mobility, or the possibility for a molecule to move outside the confines of its current position, within the material of which the stress is applied. In this paper, a viscoelastic constitutive analysis is used to investigate the counter-intuitive experimental observation of “mobility decrease with increased deformation through yield” for a glass forming polymer during stress relaxation while under compressive and tensile loading conditions. The behavior of an epoxy thermoset is examined using an extensively validated, thermorheologically simple, material “clock” model, the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model. This methodology allows for a comparison between the linear viscoelastic (LVE) limit and the true non-linear viscoelastic (NLVE) representation and enables exploration of a wide range of conditions that are not practical to investigate experimentally. The model predicts the behavior previously described as “mobility decrease with increased deformation” in the LVE limit and at low strain rates for NLVE. Only when loading rates are sufficient to decrease the material shift factor by multiple orders of magnitude is the anticipated deformation induced mobility or “mobility increase with increased deformation” observed. While the model has not been “trained” for these behaviors, itmore » also predicts that the normalized stress relaxation response is indistinguishable amongst strain levels in the “post-yield” region, as has been experimentally reported. At long time, which has not been examined experimentally, the model predicts that even the normalized relaxation curves that exhibit “mobility increase with increased deformation” “cross back over” and return to the LVE ordering. Finally, these findings demonstrate the ability of rheologically simple models to represent the counter-intuitive experimentally measured material response and present predictions at long time scales that could be tested experimentally.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Center
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1469630
Report Number(s):
[SAND-2018-9612J]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0032-3861; PII: S0032386118303537]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[NA0003525]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Polymer
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 145]; Journal ID: ISSN 0032-3861
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; polymer glass; nonlinear viscoelasticity; stress relaxation; constitutive modeling

Citation Formats

Kropka, Jamie M., and Long, Kevin N. Predicting the counter-intuitive stress relaxation behavior of glass forming materials. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2018.04.050.
Kropka, Jamie M., & Long, Kevin N. Predicting the counter-intuitive stress relaxation behavior of glass forming materials. United States. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2018.04.050.
Kropka, Jamie M., and Long, Kevin N. Sat . "Predicting the counter-intuitive stress relaxation behavior of glass forming materials". United States. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2018.04.050. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469630.
@article{osti_1469630,
title = {Predicting the counter-intuitive stress relaxation behavior of glass forming materials},
author = {Kropka, Jamie M. and Long, Kevin N.},
abstractNote = {The ability to relax a macroscopically applied stress is often associated with molecular mobility, or the possibility for a molecule to move outside the confines of its current position, within the material of which the stress is applied. In this paper, a viscoelastic constitutive analysis is used to investigate the counter-intuitive experimental observation of “mobility decrease with increased deformation through yield” for a glass forming polymer during stress relaxation while under compressive and tensile loading conditions. The behavior of an epoxy thermoset is examined using an extensively validated, thermorheologically simple, material “clock” model, the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model. This methodology allows for a comparison between the linear viscoelastic (LVE) limit and the true non-linear viscoelastic (NLVE) representation and enables exploration of a wide range of conditions that are not practical to investigate experimentally. The model predicts the behavior previously described as “mobility decrease with increased deformation” in the LVE limit and at low strain rates for NLVE. Only when loading rates are sufficient to decrease the material shift factor by multiple orders of magnitude is the anticipated deformation induced mobility or “mobility increase with increased deformation” observed. While the model has not been “trained” for these behaviors, it also predicts that the normalized stress relaxation response is indistinguishable amongst strain levels in the “post-yield” region, as has been experimentally reported. At long time, which has not been examined experimentally, the model predicts that even the normalized relaxation curves that exhibit “mobility increase with increased deformation” “cross back over” and return to the LVE ordering. Finally, these findings demonstrate the ability of rheologically simple models to represent the counter-intuitive experimentally measured material response and present predictions at long time scales that could be tested experimentally.},
doi = {10.1016/j.polymer.2018.04.050},
journal = {Polymer},
number = ,
volume = [145],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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