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Title: Controlling Thin-Film Stress and Wrinkling during Perovskite Film Formation

Abstract

Significant effort has focused on controlling the deposition of perovskite films to enable uniform films, enabling efficiencies to climb dramatically. However, little attention has been paid to the evolution of thin-film stresses during deposition and the consequent effect on film morphology. While a textured surface topology has potential benefits for light scattering, a smooth surface is desirable to enable the pinhole-free deposition of contact layers. In this paper, we show that the highly textured morphology made by popular antisolvent conversion methods arises because of in-plane compressive stress experienced during the intermediate phase of film formation where the substrate constrains the film from expanding—leading to energy release in the form of wrinkling, resulting in trenches that can be hundreds of nanometers deep with periods of several micrometers. Finally, we demonstrate that the extent of wrinkling is correlated with the rate of film conversion and that ultrasmooth films are obtained by slowing the rate of film formation.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [6];  [1]; ORCiD logo [7]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics
  3. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering
  5. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1469597
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; EE0008154; EE0004946; DGE-1656518; ECCS-1542152
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Energy Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Bush, Kevin A., Rolston, Nicholas, Gold-Parker, Aryeh, Manzoor, Salman, Hausele, Jakob, Yu, Zhengshan J., Raiford, James A., Cheacharoen, Rongrong, Holman, Zachary C., Toney, Michael F., Dauskardt, Reinhold H., and McGehee, Michael D. Controlling Thin-Film Stress and Wrinkling during Perovskite Film Formation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b00544.
Bush, Kevin A., Rolston, Nicholas, Gold-Parker, Aryeh, Manzoor, Salman, Hausele, Jakob, Yu, Zhengshan J., Raiford, James A., Cheacharoen, Rongrong, Holman, Zachary C., Toney, Michael F., Dauskardt, Reinhold H., & McGehee, Michael D. Controlling Thin-Film Stress and Wrinkling during Perovskite Film Formation. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b00544.
Bush, Kevin A., Rolston, Nicholas, Gold-Parker, Aryeh, Manzoor, Salman, Hausele, Jakob, Yu, Zhengshan J., Raiford, James A., Cheacharoen, Rongrong, Holman, Zachary C., Toney, Michael F., Dauskardt, Reinhold H., and McGehee, Michael D. Tue . "Controlling Thin-Film Stress and Wrinkling during Perovskite Film Formation". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b00544. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469597.
@article{osti_1469597,
title = {Controlling Thin-Film Stress and Wrinkling during Perovskite Film Formation},
author = {Bush, Kevin A. and Rolston, Nicholas and Gold-Parker, Aryeh and Manzoor, Salman and Hausele, Jakob and Yu, Zhengshan J. and Raiford, James A. and Cheacharoen, Rongrong and Holman, Zachary C. and Toney, Michael F. and Dauskardt, Reinhold H. and McGehee, Michael D.},
abstractNote = {Significant effort has focused on controlling the deposition of perovskite films to enable uniform films, enabling efficiencies to climb dramatically. However, little attention has been paid to the evolution of thin-film stresses during deposition and the consequent effect on film morphology. While a textured surface topology has potential benefits for light scattering, a smooth surface is desirable to enable the pinhole-free deposition of contact layers. In this paper, we show that the highly textured morphology made by popular antisolvent conversion methods arises because of in-plane compressive stress experienced during the intermediate phase of film formation where the substrate constrains the film from expanding—leading to energy release in the form of wrinkling, resulting in trenches that can be hundreds of nanometers deep with periods of several micrometers. Finally, we demonstrate that the extent of wrinkling is correlated with the rate of film conversion and that ultrasmooth films are obtained by slowing the rate of film formation.},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.8b00544},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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