skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Three-dimensional modeling of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

Abstract

We present three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport in the ocean crust, to explore patterns and controls on ridge-flank hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Field studies have shown that there is large-scale fluid flow in the volcanic ocean crust in this region, including local convection and circulation between two basement outcrops separated by ~50 km. New simulations include an assessment of crustal permeability and aquifer thickness, outcrop permeability, the potential influence of multiple discharging outcrops, and a comparison between two-dimensional (profile) and three-dimensional representations of the natural system. Field observations that help to constrain new simulations include a modest range of flow rates between recharging and discharging outcrops, secondary convection adjacent to the recharging outcrop, crustal permeability determinations made in boreholes, and the lack of a regional seafloor heat flux anomaly as a consequence of advective heat loss from the crust. Three-dimensional simulations are most consistent with field observations when models use a crustal permeability of 3 ×10 -13 to 2 × 10 -12 m 2, and the crustal aquifer is ≤300 m thick, values consistent with borehole observations. Here, we find fluid flow rates and crustal cooling efficiencies that aremore » an order of magnitude greater in three-dimensional simulations than in two-dimensional simulations using equivalent properties. Lastly, simulations including discharge from an additional outcrop can also replicate field observations but tend to increase the overall rate of recharge and reduce the flow rate at the primary discharge site.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences Dept.
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1469543
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27653
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; OIA- 0939564; OCE-1031808; OCE-1260408
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences; Hydrothermal circulation; fluid flow; heat flow; permeability; modeling; three‐dimensional

Citation Formats

Winslow, Dustin, Fisher, Andrew, Stauffer, Philip H., Gable, Carl Walter, and Zyvoloski, George Anthony. Three-dimensional modeling of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2015JB012606.
Winslow, Dustin, Fisher, Andrew, Stauffer, Philip H., Gable, Carl Walter, & Zyvoloski, George Anthony. Three-dimensional modeling of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. United States. doi:10.1002/2015JB012606.
Winslow, Dustin, Fisher, Andrew, Stauffer, Philip H., Gable, Carl Walter, and Zyvoloski, George Anthony. Tue . "Three-dimensional modeling of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge". United States. doi:10.1002/2015JB012606. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469543.
@article{osti_1469543,
title = {Three-dimensional modeling of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge},
author = {Winslow, Dustin and Fisher, Andrew and Stauffer, Philip H. and Gable, Carl Walter and Zyvoloski, George Anthony},
abstractNote = {We present three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid and heat transport in the ocean crust, to explore patterns and controls on ridge-flank hydrothermal circulation on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Field studies have shown that there is large-scale fluid flow in the volcanic ocean crust in this region, including local convection and circulation between two basement outcrops separated by ~50 km. New simulations include an assessment of crustal permeability and aquifer thickness, outcrop permeability, the potential influence of multiple discharging outcrops, and a comparison between two-dimensional (profile) and three-dimensional representations of the natural system. Field observations that help to constrain new simulations include a modest range of flow rates between recharging and discharging outcrops, secondary convection adjacent to the recharging outcrop, crustal permeability determinations made in boreholes, and the lack of a regional seafloor heat flux anomaly as a consequence of advective heat loss from the crust. Three-dimensional simulations are most consistent with field observations when models use a crustal permeability of 3 ×10-13 to 2 × 10-12 m2, and the crustal aquifer is ≤300 m thick, values consistent with borehole observations. Here, we find fluid flow rates and crustal cooling efficiencies that are an order of magnitude greater in three-dimensional simulations than in two-dimensional simulations using equivalent properties. Lastly, simulations including discharge from an additional outcrop can also replicate field observations but tend to increase the overall rate of recharge and reduce the flow rate at the primary discharge site.},
doi = {10.1002/2015JB012606},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 3,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 11 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Geomicrobiology in oceanography: microbe–mineral interactions at and below the seafloor
journal, September 2005

  • Edwards, Katrina J.; Bach, Wolfgang; McCollom, Thomas M.
  • Trends in Microbiology, Vol. 13, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2005.07.005

Fluids from Aging Ocean Crust That Support Microbial Life
journal, January 2003


Topographic forcing of supercritical convection in a porous medium such as the oceanic crust
journal, September 1981


Influence of basement topography on hydrothermal circulation in sediment-buried igneous oceanic crust
journal, January 1997


New global seamount census from altimetry-derived gravity data: New global seamount census
journal, June 2011


An analysis of the variation of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow with age
journal, February 1977


Effect of hydrothermal ridge flank alteration on the in situ physical properties of uppermost oceanic crust
journal, January 2005


Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data
journal, January 2000

  • Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.
  • Nature, Vol. 403, Issue 6765
  • DOI: 10.1038/47463

Hydrothermal venting and geothermal heating in Cascadia Basin
journal, April 1995

  • Thomson, Richard E.; Davis, Earl E.; Burd, Brenda J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B4
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JB00030

Seawater recharge into oceanic crust: IODP Exp 327 Site U1363 Grizzly Bare outcrop: SEAWATER RECHARGE INTO BASALTIC CRUST
journal, June 2013

  • Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Hulme, Samuel M.; Fisher, Andrew T.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20131

Large heat and fluid fluxes driven through mid-plate outcrops on ocean crust
journal, August 2008

  • Hutnak, M.; Fisher, A. T.; Harris, R.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo264

Borehole-to-borehole hydrologic response across 2.4 km in the upper oceanic crust: Implications for crustal-scale properties
journal, January 2008

  • Fisher, A. T.; Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JB005447

A hydrologic model for the uppermost oceanic crust constrained by temperature estimates from carbonate minerals: RECONCILING CRUSTAL HYDROLOGY/GEOLOGY
journal, August 2013

  • Anderson, B. W.; Gillis, K. M.; Coogan, L. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 118, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrb.50325

Passive, off-axis convection through the southern flank of the Costa Rica Rift
journal, January 1990

  • Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.; Narasimhan, I. T. N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB095iB06p09343

Hydrothermal circulation within topographically rough basaltic basement on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank: ROUGH BASEMENT HYDROTHERMAL CIRCULATION
journal, February 2004

  • Spinelli, G. A.; Fisher, A. T.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GC000616

Off-axis hydrothermal circulation: Parametric tests of a refined model of processes at Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program site 504
journal, February 1994

  • Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.; Narasimhan, T. N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 99, Issue B2
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JB02741

Global patterns and vigor of ventilated hydrothermal circulation through young seafloor
journal, October 2013


Heat flow through a basaltic outcrop on a sedimented young ridge flank: HEAT FLOW THROUGH A BASALTIC OUTCROP
journal, December 2004

  • Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Mottl, Michael J.; Fisher, Andrew T.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 5, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GC000700

Chemical composition of basement fluids within an oceanic ridge flank: Implications for along-strike and across-strike hydrothermal circulation
journal, June 2000

  • Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Elderfield, Henry; Mottl, Michael J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 105, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JB900070

Regional heat flow variations across the sedimented Juan de Fuca Ridge eastern flank: Constraints on lithospheric cooling and lateral hydrothermal heat transport
journal, August 1999

  • Davis, E. E.; Chapman, D. S.; Wang, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 104, Issue B8
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JB900124

Constraints on hydrothermal heat flux through the oceanic lithosphere from global heat flow
journal, February 1994

  • Stein, Carol A.; Stein, Seth
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 99, Issue B2
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JB02222

Seawater transport and reaction in upper oceanic basaltic basement: chemical data from continuous monitoring of sealed boreholes in a ridge flank environment
journal, December 2003

  • Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Jannasch, Hans W.; Kastner, Miriam
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 216, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00549-1

Controls of bathymetric relief on hydrothermal fluid flow at mid-ocean ridges
journal, January 2012

  • Bani-Hassan, Nasser; Iyer, Karthik; Rüpke, Lars H.
  • Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, Vol. 13
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GC004041

Correcting for Diffusion in Carbon-14 Dating of Ground Water
journal, March 1997


Seamounts as Conduits for Massive Fluid, Heat, and Solute Fluxes on Ridge Flanks
journal, March 2010


FlankFlux: an experiment to study the nature of hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust
journal, May 1992

  • Davis, E. E.; Chapman, D. S.; Mottl, M. J.
  • Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 29, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1139/e92-078

Fluid and geochemical transport through oceanic crust: a transect across the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge
journal, October 1999


Abrupt thermal transition reveals hydrothermal boundary and role of seamounts within the Cocos Plate
journal, January 2003


Provenance, Stratigraphic Architecture, and Hydrogeologic Influence of Turbidites on the Mid-Ocean Ridge Flank of Northwestern Cascadia Basin, Pacific Ocean
journal, January 2005

  • Underwood, M. B.; Hoke, K. D.; Fisher, A. T.
  • Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 75, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2005.012

Hydrothermal recharge and discharge across 50 km guided by seamounts on a young ridge flank
journal, February 2003

  • Fisher, A. T.; Davis, E. E.; Hutnak, M.
  • Nature, Vol. 421, Issue 6923
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature01352

Permeability versus depth in the upper oceanic crust: In situ measurements in DSDP hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific
journal, January 1985

  • Anderson, Roger N.; Zoback, Mark D.; Hickman, Stephen H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 90, Issue B5
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB090iB05p03659

New evidence for age variation and scale effects of permeabilities of young oceanic crust from borehole thermal and pressure measurements
journal, May 2003


Detection of Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Fluxes by Seawater Mg and Ca Anomalies
journal, July 1999


Composition of pore and spring waters from Baby Bare: global implications of geochemical fluxes from a ridge flank hydrothermal system
journal, February 2000


Sustainability and dynamics of outcrop-to-outcrop hydrothermal circulation
journal, June 2015

  • Winslow, Dustin M.; Fisher, Andrew T.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8567

A geological and geophysical investigation of Baby Bare, locus of a ridge flank hydrothermal system in the Cascadia Basin
journal, October 2000

  • Becker, Nathan C.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Mottl, Michael J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 105, Issue B10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JB900204

Influence of sedimentation, local and regional hydrothermal circulation, and thermal rebound on measurements of seafloor heat flux
journal, January 2007

  • Hutnak, M.; Fisher, A. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue B12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JB005022

The role of outcrop-to-outcrop fluid flow in off-axis oceanic hydrothermal systems under abyssal sedimentation conditions: OUTCROP-TO-OUTCROP FLUID FLOW
journal, May 2012

  • Anderson, B. W.; Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 117, Issue B5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JB009052

A heat flow based cooling model for tectonic plates
journal, January 2013


Warm springs discovered on 3.5 Ma oceanic crust, eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge
journal, January 1998


The permeability of young oceanic crust east of Juan de Fuca Ridge Determined using borehole thermal measurements
journal, June 1997

  • Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01286

Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of low-temperature axial and ridge-flank hydrothermal fluids of the Juan de Fuca Ridge
journal, January 2008


A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age
journal, September 1992

  • Stein, Carol A.; Stein, Seth
  • Nature, Vol. 359, Issue 6391
  • DOI: 10.1038/359123a0

Petrology of Baby Bare and Mama Bare lavas
journal, January 1998

  • Karsten, J. L.; Becker, N.; Mottl, M. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL53564

Subseafloor seawater-basalt-microbe reactions: Continuous sampling of borehole fluids in a ridge flank environment: SUBSEAFLOOR BOREHOLE FLUIDS
journal, July 2010

  • Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Jannasch, Hans W.; Fisher, Andrew T.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GC003057

Hydrothermal heat flux through aged oceanic crust: where does the heat escape?
journal, August 2002