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Title: Direct Observation of Large Flexoelectric Bending at the Nanoscale in Lanthanide Scandates

There is a growing interest in the flexoelectric effect, since at the nanoscale it is predicted to be very large. However, there have been no direct observations of flexoelectric bending consistent with current theoretical work that implies strains comparable to or exceeding the yield strains of typical materials. In this work, we show a direct observation of extraordinarily large, two-dimensional reversible bending at the nanoscale in dysprosium scandate due to the converse flexoelectric effect, with similar results for terbium and gadolinium scandate. Within a transmission electron microscope, thin features bend up to 90° with radii of curvature of about 1 μm, corresponding to very large nominal strains. Analysis including independent experimental determination of the flexoelectric coefficient is semiquantitatively consistent with interpreting the results as due to flexoelectricity. These results experimentally demonstrate large flexoelectric bending at the nanoscale.
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-01ER45945
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; Flexoelectricity; in situ; lanthanide scandates; transmission electron microscopy
OSTI Identifier:
1469325

Koirala, Pratik, Mizzi, Christopher A., and Marks, Laurence D.. Direct Observation of Large Flexoelectric Bending at the Nanoscale in Lanthanide Scandates. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01126.
Koirala, Pratik, Mizzi, Christopher A., & Marks, Laurence D.. Direct Observation of Large Flexoelectric Bending at the Nanoscale in Lanthanide Scandates. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01126.
Koirala, Pratik, Mizzi, Christopher A., and Marks, Laurence D.. 2018. "Direct Observation of Large Flexoelectric Bending at the Nanoscale in Lanthanide Scandates". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01126.
@article{osti_1469325,
title = {Direct Observation of Large Flexoelectric Bending at the Nanoscale in Lanthanide Scandates},
author = {Koirala, Pratik and Mizzi, Christopher A. and Marks, Laurence D.},
abstractNote = {There is a growing interest in the flexoelectric effect, since at the nanoscale it is predicted to be very large. However, there have been no direct observations of flexoelectric bending consistent with current theoretical work that implies strains comparable to or exceeding the yield strains of typical materials. In this work, we show a direct observation of extraordinarily large, two-dimensional reversible bending at the nanoscale in dysprosium scandate due to the converse flexoelectric effect, with similar results for terbium and gadolinium scandate. Within a transmission electron microscope, thin features bend up to 90° with radii of curvature of about 1 μm, corresponding to very large nominal strains. Analysis including independent experimental determination of the flexoelectric coefficient is semiquantitatively consistent with interpreting the results as due to flexoelectricity. These results experimentally demonstrate large flexoelectric bending at the nanoscale.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01126},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}