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Title: Outbreak investigations of foot and mouth disease virus in Nepal between 2010 and 2015 in the context of historical serotype occurrence

Abstract

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Nepal and causes substantial economic losses in the livestock industry. The goal of this study was to perform an epidemiological analysis of FMD outbreaks reported to the Veterinary Epidemiology Center, Tripureshwor, Nepal during 2010–2015, in order to strengthen the National FMD Control Program. These current data were considered in the context of historical data on FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes detected in the country between 1965 and 2015. During 2010–2015, a total of 1333 livestock holdings reported FMD outbreaks in Nepal. On average, 71.2 animals were affected in each outbreak, with a case fatality rate of 3.6%. FMD was reported throughout the country, and the proportion of affected holdings was not significantly among eco-zones, regions, or species. The Hill eco-zone had the highest number of holdings affected (782), followed by Mountain (304), and Terai (247). When analysed by the developmental region, the Western (381) and Central (368) Developmental Regions had the highest numbers of holdings affected. Cattle were the most frequently affected species (39%), followed by buffalo (33%), and goats (19%). FMD occurred throughout the year, with peaks in winter (December/January) and in the pre-monsoon period (April/May). Between 1965 and 2015 FMDV serotypemore » O had the highest prevalence (81%), followed by Asia-1 (11%), A (6%), and C (2%). Serotype C was not detected after 1996, and only serotype O was reported after 2011. These descriptive analyses provide critical landmarks to establish baselines, and document early progress of the ongoing Progressive Control Pathway of FMD (PCP-FMD) which could be useful in Nepal and other South Asian nations.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]
  1. Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Chitwan Nepal
  2. Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Chitwan Nepal, Regional Veterinary Laboratory (RVL) Pokhara Nepal
  3. Veterinary Epidemiology Center Kathmandu Nepal
  4. Wageningen University Wageningen the Netherlands
  5. Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit Plum Island Animal Disease Center ARS, USDA Orient Point New York USA, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education PIADC Research Participation Program Oak Ridge TennesseeUSA
  6. Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit Plum Island Animal Disease Center ARS, USDA Orient Point New York USA, Department of Veterinary Population Medicine University of Minnesota St. Paul MinnesotaUSA
  7. Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit Plum Island Animal Disease Center ARS, USDA Orient Point New York USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1469236
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1469237; OSTI ID: 1623591
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0014664
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Veterinary Medicine and Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Veterinary Medicine and Science Journal Volume: 4 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2053-1095
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
Country unknown/Code not available
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Veterinary Sciences; analysis; epidemiological; FMD; Nepal; Outbreak; Serotypes

Citation Formats

Adhikari, Ganesh, Acharya, Krishna P., Upadhyay, Mukul, Raut, Rabin, Kaphle, Krishna, Khanal, Tanka, Bertram, Miranda R., Stenfeldt, Carolina, and Arzt, Jonathan. Outbreak investigations of foot and mouth disease virus in Nepal between 2010 and 2015 in the context of historical serotype occurrence. Country unknown/Code not available: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/vms3.120.
Adhikari, Ganesh, Acharya, Krishna P., Upadhyay, Mukul, Raut, Rabin, Kaphle, Krishna, Khanal, Tanka, Bertram, Miranda R., Stenfeldt, Carolina, & Arzt, Jonathan. Outbreak investigations of foot and mouth disease virus in Nepal between 2010 and 2015 in the context of historical serotype occurrence. Country unknown/Code not available. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/vms3.120
Adhikari, Ganesh, Acharya, Krishna P., Upadhyay, Mukul, Raut, Rabin, Kaphle, Krishna, Khanal, Tanka, Bertram, Miranda R., Stenfeldt, Carolina, and Arzt, Jonathan. Mon . "Outbreak investigations of foot and mouth disease virus in Nepal between 2010 and 2015 in the context of historical serotype occurrence". Country unknown/Code not available. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/vms3.120.
@article{osti_1469236,
title = {Outbreak investigations of foot and mouth disease virus in Nepal between 2010 and 2015 in the context of historical serotype occurrence},
author = {Adhikari, Ganesh and Acharya, Krishna P. and Upadhyay, Mukul and Raut, Rabin and Kaphle, Krishna and Khanal, Tanka and Bertram, Miranda R. and Stenfeldt, Carolina and Arzt, Jonathan},
abstractNote = {Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Nepal and causes substantial economic losses in the livestock industry. The goal of this study was to perform an epidemiological analysis of FMD outbreaks reported to the Veterinary Epidemiology Center, Tripureshwor, Nepal during 2010–2015, in order to strengthen the National FMD Control Program. These current data were considered in the context of historical data on FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes detected in the country between 1965 and 2015. During 2010–2015, a total of 1333 livestock holdings reported FMD outbreaks in Nepal. On average, 71.2 animals were affected in each outbreak, with a case fatality rate of 3.6%. FMD was reported throughout the country, and the proportion of affected holdings was not significantly among eco-zones, regions, or species. The Hill eco-zone had the highest number of holdings affected (782), followed by Mountain (304), and Terai (247). When analysed by the developmental region, the Western (381) and Central (368) Developmental Regions had the highest numbers of holdings affected. Cattle were the most frequently affected species (39%), followed by buffalo (33%), and goats (19%). FMD occurred throughout the year, with peaks in winter (December/January) and in the pre-monsoon period (April/May). Between 1965 and 2015 FMDV serotype O had the highest prevalence (81%), followed by Asia-1 (11%), A (6%), and C (2%). Serotype C was not detected after 1996, and only serotype O was reported after 2011. These descriptive analyses provide critical landmarks to establish baselines, and document early progress of the ongoing Progressive Control Pathway of FMD (PCP-FMD) which could be useful in Nepal and other South Asian nations.},
doi = {10.1002/vms3.120},
journal = {Veterinary Medicine and Science},
number = 4,
volume = 4,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/vms3.120

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