skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints

Abstract

Friction stir scribe (FSS) welding as a recent derivative of friction stir welding (FSW) has been successfully used to fabricate a linear joint between automotive Al and steel sheets. It has been established that FSS welding generates a hook-like structure at the bimaterial interface. Beyond the hook-like structure, there is a lack of fundamental understanding on the bond formation mechanism during this newly developed FSS welding process. In this work, the microstructures and phases at the joint interface of FSS welded Al to ultra-high-strength steel were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that both mechanical interlocking and interfacial bonding occurred simultaneously during the FSS welding process. Based on SEM observations, a higher diffusion driving force in the advancing side was found compared to the retreating side and the scribe swept zone, and thermally activated diffusion was the primary driving force for the interfacial bond formation in the scribe swept region. The TEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) revealed that a thin intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was formed through the interface, where the thickness of this layer gradually decreased from the advancing side to the retreating side owing to different material plastic deformation andmore » heat generations. Finally, in addition, the diffraction pattern (or one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern) revealed that the IMC layer was composed of Fe 2Al 5 or Fe 4Al 13 with a Fe/Al solid solution depending on the weld regions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. Tianjin Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy Materials and Manufacturing
  3. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1468165
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 140; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1087-1357
Publisher:
ASME
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; friction; heat; diffusion; steel; welding; transmission electron microscopy; magnification; intermetallic compounds; scanning electron microscopy; bonding

Citation Formats

Wang, Kaifeng, Upadhyay, Piyush, Wang, Yuxiang, Li, Jingjing, Sun, Xin, and Roosendaal, Timothy. Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1115/1.4040873.
Wang, Kaifeng, Upadhyay, Piyush, Wang, Yuxiang, Li, Jingjing, Sun, Xin, & Roosendaal, Timothy. Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints. United States. doi:10.1115/1.4040873.
Wang, Kaifeng, Upadhyay, Piyush, Wang, Yuxiang, Li, Jingjing, Sun, Xin, and Roosendaal, Timothy. Fri . "Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints". United States. doi:10.1115/1.4040873. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1468165.
@article{osti_1468165,
title = {Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints},
author = {Wang, Kaifeng and Upadhyay, Piyush and Wang, Yuxiang and Li, Jingjing and Sun, Xin and Roosendaal, Timothy},
abstractNote = {Friction stir scribe (FSS) welding as a recent derivative of friction stir welding (FSW) has been successfully used to fabricate a linear joint between automotive Al and steel sheets. It has been established that FSS welding generates a hook-like structure at the bimaterial interface. Beyond the hook-like structure, there is a lack of fundamental understanding on the bond formation mechanism during this newly developed FSS welding process. In this work, the microstructures and phases at the joint interface of FSS welded Al to ultra-high-strength steel were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that both mechanical interlocking and interfacial bonding occurred simultaneously during the FSS welding process. Based on SEM observations, a higher diffusion driving force in the advancing side was found compared to the retreating side and the scribe swept zone, and thermally activated diffusion was the primary driving force for the interfacial bond formation in the scribe swept region. The TEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) revealed that a thin intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was formed through the interface, where the thickness of this layer gradually decreased from the advancing side to the retreating side owing to different material plastic deformation and heat generations. Finally, in addition, the diffraction pattern (or one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern) revealed that the IMC layer was composed of Fe2Al5 or Fe4Al13 with a Fe/Al solid solution depending on the weld regions.},
doi = {10.1115/1.4040873},
journal = {Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering},
number = 11,
volume = 140,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Friction stir weld nugget temperature asymmetry
journal, January 2010


Friction stir scribe welding technique for dissimilar joining of aluminium and galvanised steel
journal, October 2017

  • Wang, Tianhao; Sidhar, Harpreet; Mishra, Rajiv S.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1080/13621718.2017.1381460

An assessment of the entire Al–Fe system including D03 ordering
journal, June 2009


Role of welding parameters on interfacial bonding in dissimilar steel/aluminum friction stir welds
journal, June 2015

  • Shen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Haghshenas, M.
  • Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 18, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jestch.2014.12.008

Influence of welding parameters on intermetallic compounds formation in dissimilar steel/aluminum friction stir welds
journal, August 2017


Recent development in aluminium alloys for the automotive industry
journal, March 2000


Dissimilar friction stir welding of 6061 Al to 316 stainless steel using Zn as a filler metal
journal, November 2016


Effect of tool travel and rotation speeds on weld zone defects and joint strength of aluminium steel lap joints made by friction stir welding
journal, February 2012

  • Movahedi, M.; Kokabi, A. H.; Reihani, S. M. Seyed
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1179/1362171811Y.0000000092

Joining of dissimilar materials
journal, January 2015


Characterization of Aluminum/Steel Lap Joint by Friction Stir Welding
journal, February 2005

  • Elrefaey, A.; Gouda, M.; Takahashi, M.
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1361/10599490522310

Effects of forge axis force and backing plate thermal diffusivity on FSW of AA6056
journal, December 2012


Thermal Mechanical Modeling of the Plunge Stage During Friction-Stir Welding of Dissimilar Al 6061 to TRIP 780 Steel
journal, September 2015

  • Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 137, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4031188

Effects of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Advanced High-Strength Steel
journal, May 2017

  • Chen, Kai; Liu, Xun; Ni, Jun
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 139, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4036225

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling on Steady-State Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6061 to TRIP Steel
journal, November 2016

  • Liu, Xun; Chen, Gaoqiang; Ni, Jun
  • Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 139, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4034895

An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding
journal, November 2003

  • Schmidt, H.; Hattel, J.; Wert, J.
  • Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0965-0393/12/1/013

Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding
journal, July 2016

  • Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 25, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-016-2225-y