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Title: Van Allen Probes Measurements of Energetic Particle Deep Penetration Into the Low L Region (L < 4) During the Storm on 8 April 2016

Abstract

In this paper, using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, a penetration event of tens to hundreds of keV electrons and tens of keV protons into the low L shells (L < 4) is studied. Timing and magnetic local time (MLT) differences of energetic particle deep penetration are unveiled and underlying physical processes are examined. During this event, both proton and electron penetrations are MLT asymmetric. The observed MLT difference of proton penetration is consistent with convection of plasma sheet protons, suggesting enhanced convection during geomagnetic active times to be the cause of energetic proton deep penetration during this event. The observed MLT difference of tens to hundreds of keV electron penetration is completely different from tens of keV protons and cannot be well explained by inward radial diffusion, convection of plasma sheet electrons, or transport of trapped electrons by enhanced convection electric field represented by the Volland-Stern model or a uniform dawn-dusk electric field model based on the electric field measurements. Finally, it suggests that the underlying physical mechanism responsible for energetic electron deep penetration, which is very important for fully understanding energetic electron dynamics in the low L shells, should be MLT localized.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Lab. for Atmospheric and Space Sciences
  2. Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); National Centers for Environmental Information, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  4. Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States). Space Sciences Dept.
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  6. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1467373
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-31430
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; NAS5-01072; 967399
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; radiation belt; energetic particle deep penetration; Van Allen Probes; convection electric field; low L region

Citation Formats

Zhao, H., Baker, D. N., Califf, S., Li, X., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Kanekal, S. G., Blake, J. B., Fennell, J. F., Claudepierre, S. G., Turner, D. L., Reeves, G. D., and Spence, H. E. Van Allen Probes Measurements of Energetic Particle Deep Penetration Into the Low L Region (L < 4) During the Storm on 8 April 2016. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JA024558.
Zhao, H., Baker, D. N., Califf, S., Li, X., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Kanekal, S. G., Blake, J. B., Fennell, J. F., Claudepierre, S. G., Turner, D. L., Reeves, G. D., & Spence, H. E. Van Allen Probes Measurements of Energetic Particle Deep Penetration Into the Low L Region (L < 4) During the Storm on 8 April 2016. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JA024558.
Zhao, H., Baker, D. N., Califf, S., Li, X., Jaynes, A. N., Leonard, T., Kanekal, S. G., Blake, J. B., Fennell, J. F., Claudepierre, S. G., Turner, D. L., Reeves, G. D., and Spence, H. E. Mon . "Van Allen Probes Measurements of Energetic Particle Deep Penetration Into the Low L Region (L < 4) During the Storm on 8 April 2016". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JA024558. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1467373.
@article{osti_1467373,
title = {Van Allen Probes Measurements of Energetic Particle Deep Penetration Into the Low L Region (L < 4) During the Storm on 8 April 2016},
author = {Zhao, H. and Baker, D. N. and Califf, S. and Li, X. and Jaynes, A. N. and Leonard, T. and Kanekal, S. G. and Blake, J. B. and Fennell, J. F. and Claudepierre, S. G. and Turner, D. L. and Reeves, G. D. and Spence, H. E.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, a penetration event of tens to hundreds of keV electrons and tens of keV protons into the low L shells (L < 4) is studied. Timing and magnetic local time (MLT) differences of energetic particle deep penetration are unveiled and underlying physical processes are examined. During this event, both proton and electron penetrations are MLT asymmetric. The observed MLT difference of proton penetration is consistent with convection of plasma sheet protons, suggesting enhanced convection during geomagnetic active times to be the cause of energetic proton deep penetration during this event. The observed MLT difference of tens to hundreds of keV electron penetration is completely different from tens of keV protons and cannot be well explained by inward radial diffusion, convection of plasma sheet electrons, or transport of trapped electrons by enhanced convection electric field represented by the Volland-Stern model or a uniform dawn-dusk electric field model based on the electric field measurements. Finally, it suggests that the underlying physical mechanism responsible for energetic electron deep penetration, which is very important for fully understanding energetic electron dynamics in the low L shells, should be MLT localized.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JA024558},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = 12,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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