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Title: Effect of Secondary Circulations on the Surface–Atmosphere Exchange of Energy at an Isolated Semi-arid Forest

Abstract

Afforestation in semi-arid regions can potentially enhance the global carbon sink by increasing the terrestrial biomass. However, the survival of planted forests under such extreme environmental conditions is not guaranteed a priori, and critically depends on the surface–atmosphere exchange of energy. Here, we investigate the pine forest Yatir in Israel, an example of a man-made semi-arid ecosystem, by means of large-eddy simulations. We focus on the interaction between surface–atmosphere exchange and secondary circulations that couple the isolated forest to the surrounding shrubland. The large-eddy simulations feature a grid resolution that resolves the forest canopy in several layers, and are initialized by satellite data and Doppler lidar, eddy-covariance and radiosonde measurements. We perform three large-eddy simulations with different geostrophic wind speeds to investigate the influence of those wind speeds on the surface–atmosphere exchange. We reproduce the measured mean updrafts above the forest and mean downdrafts above the shrubland, which increase in strength with decreasing geostrophic wind speed. The largest updrafts emerge above the older, denser part of the forest, triggering secondary circulations. The spatial extent of these circulations does not cover the entire forest area, although we observe a reduced aerodynamic resistance in the regions of updraft. Our simulations indicate thatmore » the enhanced surface–atmosphere exchange of the Yatir forest is not sufficient to compensate for the increased net radiation, due to the lower albedo of the forest with respect to the surroundings, resulting in higher air temperatures inside the forest. However, the difference between the forest and shrubland temperatures decreases with increasing geostrophic wind speed due to reduction in the aerodynamic resistance.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). Inst. of Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU)
  2. Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). Inst. of Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  3. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Faculty of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; German Research Foundation (DFG); Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (GCS), Garching (Germany). Leibniz Computing Centre of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (LRZ); Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Contributing Org.:
[Univ. of Hannover (Germany)]
OSTI Identifier:
1467275
Report Number(s):
[LA-UR-17-30829]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0006-8314]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC52-06NA25396]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Boundary-Layer Meteorology
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 169; Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0006-8314
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; large-eddy simulation; canopy turbulence; aerodynamic resistance; secondary circulations; virtual canopy construction; Yatir forest

Citation Formats

Kröniger, Konstantin, De Roo, Frederik, Brugger, Peter, Huq, Sadiq, Banerjee, Tirtha, Zinsser, Judith, Rotenberg, Eyal, Yakir, Dan, Rohatyn, Shani, and Mauder, Matthias. Effect of Secondary Circulations on the Surface–Atmosphere Exchange of Energy at an Isolated Semi-arid Forest. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10546-018-0370-6.
Kröniger, Konstantin, De Roo, Frederik, Brugger, Peter, Huq, Sadiq, Banerjee, Tirtha, Zinsser, Judith, Rotenberg, Eyal, Yakir, Dan, Rohatyn, Shani, & Mauder, Matthias. Effect of Secondary Circulations on the Surface–Atmosphere Exchange of Energy at an Isolated Semi-arid Forest. United States. doi:10.1007/s10546-018-0370-6.
Kröniger, Konstantin, De Roo, Frederik, Brugger, Peter, Huq, Sadiq, Banerjee, Tirtha, Zinsser, Judith, Rotenberg, Eyal, Yakir, Dan, Rohatyn, Shani, and Mauder, Matthias. Sat . "Effect of Secondary Circulations on the Surface–Atmosphere Exchange of Energy at an Isolated Semi-arid Forest". United States. doi:10.1007/s10546-018-0370-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1467275.
@article{osti_1467275,
title = {Effect of Secondary Circulations on the Surface–Atmosphere Exchange of Energy at an Isolated Semi-arid Forest},
author = {Kröniger, Konstantin and De Roo, Frederik and Brugger, Peter and Huq, Sadiq and Banerjee, Tirtha and Zinsser, Judith and Rotenberg, Eyal and Yakir, Dan and Rohatyn, Shani and Mauder, Matthias},
abstractNote = {Afforestation in semi-arid regions can potentially enhance the global carbon sink by increasing the terrestrial biomass. However, the survival of planted forests under such extreme environmental conditions is not guaranteed a priori, and critically depends on the surface–atmosphere exchange of energy. Here, we investigate the pine forest Yatir in Israel, an example of a man-made semi-arid ecosystem, by means of large-eddy simulations. We focus on the interaction between surface–atmosphere exchange and secondary circulations that couple the isolated forest to the surrounding shrubland. The large-eddy simulations feature a grid resolution that resolves the forest canopy in several layers, and are initialized by satellite data and Doppler lidar, eddy-covariance and radiosonde measurements. We perform three large-eddy simulations with different geostrophic wind speeds to investigate the influence of those wind speeds on the surface–atmosphere exchange. We reproduce the measured mean updrafts above the forest and mean downdrafts above the shrubland, which increase in strength with decreasing geostrophic wind speed. The largest updrafts emerge above the older, denser part of the forest, triggering secondary circulations. The spatial extent of these circulations does not cover the entire forest area, although we observe a reduced aerodynamic resistance in the regions of updraft. Our simulations indicate that the enhanced surface–atmosphere exchange of the Yatir forest is not sufficient to compensate for the increased net radiation, due to the lower albedo of the forest with respect to the surroundings, resulting in higher air temperatures inside the forest. However, the difference between the forest and shrubland temperatures decreases with increasing geostrophic wind speed due to reduction in the aerodynamic resistance.},
doi = {10.1007/s10546-018-0370-6},
journal = {Boundary-Layer Meteorology},
number = [2],
volume = [169],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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Methodology comparison for canopy structure parameters extraction from digital hemispherical photography in boreal forests
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The Wind in the Willows: Flows in Forest Canopies in Complex Terrain
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Some drag coefficients for british forest trees derived from wind tunnel studies
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Effect of Surface Heterogeneity on the Boundary-Layer Height: A Case Study at a Semi-Arid Forest
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Mean-Field and Second-Moment Budgets in a Baroclinic, Convective Boundary Layer
journal, June 1980


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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Scale issues in boundary-layer meteorology: Surface energy balances in heterogeneous terrain
    journal, June 1995


    The formation of vertical Vortices in the convective boundary layer
    journal, October 2000

    • Kanak, Katharine M.; Lilly, Douglas K.; Snow, John T.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 126, Issue 569
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712656910

    Characteristics of secondary circulations over an inhomogeneous surface simulated with large-eddy simulation
    journal, November 2006

    • Prabha, Thara V.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Binford, Michael W.
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 123, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-006-9137-6

    Edge Flow and Canopy Structure: A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
    journal, August 2007


    The Effects of Canopy Leaf Area Index on Airflow Across Forest Edges: Large-eddy Simulation and Analytical Results
    journal, December 2007


    Exploring the Effects of Microscale Structural Heterogeneity of Forest Canopies Using Large-Eddy Simulations
    journal, June 2009

    • Bohrer, Gil; Katul, Gabriel G.; Walko, Robert L.
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 132, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-009-9404-4

    Large-Eddy Simulations of Surface Heterogeneity Effects on the Convective Boundary Layer During the LITFASS-2003 Experiment
    journal, July 2012


    Mean Flow Near Edges and Within Cavities Situated Inside Dense Canopies
    journal, May 2013

    • Banerjee, Tirtha; Katul, Gabriel; Fontan, Stefano
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 149, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-013-9826-x

    Surface Heterogeneity Effects on Regional-Scale Fluxes in the Stable Boundary Layer: Aerodynamic Roughness Length Transitions
    journal, July 2013


    Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations
    journal, April 2014

    • Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 152, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-014-9923-5

    Large-Eddy Simulation Study of the Effects on Flow of a Heterogeneous Forest at Sub-Tree Resolution
    journal, August 2014

    • Schlegel, Fabian; Stiller, Jörg; Bienert, Anne
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 154, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-014-9962-y

    Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain
    journal, June 2016

    • Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 161, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-016-0176-3

    On the Nature of the Transition Between Roll and Cellular Organization in the Convective Boundary Layer
    journal, November 2016

    • Salesky, Scott T.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Bou-Zeid, Elie
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 163, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-016-0220-3

    A Numerical Case Study of the Implications of Secondary Circulations to the Interpretation of Eddy-Covariance Measurements Over Small Lakes
    journal, June 2017

    • Kenny, William T.; Bohrer, Gil; Morin, Timothy H.
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 165, Issue 2, p. 311-332
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-017-0268-8

    Effect of Surface Heterogeneity on the Boundary-Layer Height: A Case Study at a Semi-Arid Forest
    journal, June 2018

    • Brugger, Peter; Banerjee, Tirtha; De Roo, Frederik
    • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 169, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-018-0371-5

    The energy-budget evaluation of the micrometeorological transfer processes within a cornfield
    journal, February 1966


    Some drag coefficients for british forest trees derived from wind tunnel studies
    journal, January 1973


    Optically-based methods for measuring seasonal variation of leaf area index in boreal conifer stands
    journal, July 1996


    Methodology comparison for canopy structure parameters extraction from digital hemispherical photography in boreal forests
    journal, April 2005


    Estimating the plant area density of a Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi Sarg.) plantation using a ground-based laser scanner
    journal, March 2008


    Long term and seasonal courses of leaf area index in a semi-arid forest plantation
    journal, May 2011


    A strategy for quality and uncertainty assessment of long-term eddy-covariance measurements
    journal, February 2013


    A scalable plant-resolving radiative transfer model based on optimized GPU ray tracing
    journal, November 2014


    Secondary circulations at a solitary forest surrounded by semi-arid shrubland and their impact on eddy-covariance measurements
    journal, October 2015


    Flow adjustment inside homogeneous canopies after a leading edge – An analytical approach backed by LES
    journal, May 2018


    Tree-crown-resolving large-eddy simulation coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer model
    journal, February 2018

    • Matsuda, Keigo; Onishi, Ryo; Takahashi, Keiko
    • Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 173
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jweia.2017.11.015

    The effect of spatial resolution on the accuracy of leaf area index estimation for a forest planted in the desert transition zone
    journal, August 2007

    • Sprintsin, Michael; Karnieli, Arnon; Berliner, Pedro
    • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 109, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2007.01.020

    Adjustment of a turbulent boundary layer to a canopy of roughness elements
    journal, July 2003


    Large-Eddy Simulation of Coherent Turbulence Structures Associated with Scalar Ramps Over Plant Canopies
    journal, August 2004


    Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo
    journal, November 2000


    Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system
    journal, July 2010

    • Arneth, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Zaehle, S.
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo905

    Numerical Calculation of Time-Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow of Fluid with Free Surface
    journal, January 1965

    • Harlow, Francis H.; Welch, J. Eddie
    • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 8, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1761178

    Contribution of Semi-Arid Forests to the Climate System
    journal, January 2010


    The Wind in the Willows: Flows in Forest Canopies in Complex Terrain
    journal, January 2012


    An assessment of the performance of a 1.5 μm Doppler lidar for operational vertical wind profiling based on a 1-year trial
    journal, January 2015

    • Päschke, E.; Leinweber, R.; Lehmann, V.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 8, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-8-2251-2015