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Title: Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation

Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (<1.25 eV) to create valence-band holes by annihilation. Lastly, our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)
  2. Univ. Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium)
  3. Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)
  4. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-07ER46352
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for the Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials (CCDM)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1466809

Chirayath, V. A., Callewaert, V., Fairchild, A. J., Chrysler, M. D., Gladen, R. W., Mcdonald, A. D., Imam, S. K., Shastry, K., Koymen, A. R., Saniz, R., Barbiellini, B., Rajeshwar, K., Partoens, B., and Weiss, A. H.. Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms16116.
Chirayath, V. A., Callewaert, V., Fairchild, A. J., Chrysler, M. D., Gladen, R. W., Mcdonald, A. D., Imam, S. K., Shastry, K., Koymen, A. R., Saniz, R., Barbiellini, B., Rajeshwar, K., Partoens, B., & Weiss, A. H.. Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms16116.
Chirayath, V. A., Callewaert, V., Fairchild, A. J., Chrysler, M. D., Gladen, R. W., Mcdonald, A. D., Imam, S. K., Shastry, K., Koymen, A. R., Saniz, R., Barbiellini, B., Rajeshwar, K., Partoens, B., and Weiss, A. H.. 2017. "Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms16116. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1466809.
@article{osti_1466809,
title = {Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation},
author = {Chirayath, V. A. and Callewaert, V. and Fairchild, A. J. and Chrysler, M. D. and Gladen, R. W. and Mcdonald, A. D. and Imam, S. K. and Shastry, K. and Koymen, A. R. and Saniz, R. and Barbiellini, B. and Rajeshwar, K. and Partoens, B. and Weiss, A. H.},
abstractNote = {Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (<1.25 eV) to create valence-band holes by annihilation. Lastly, our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms16116},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}