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Title: Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation

Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (<1.25 eV) to create valence-band holes by annihilation. Lastly, our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)
  2. Univ. Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium)
  3. Univ. of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)
  4. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-07ER46352
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for the Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials (CCDM)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1466809