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Title: Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia

Abstract

An understanding of how anthropogenic emissions affect the concentrations and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM) is fundamental to quantifying the influence of human activities on climate and air quality. The central Amazon Basin, especially around the city of Manaus, Brazil, has experienced rapid changes in the past decades due to ongoing urbanization. Herein, changes in the concentration and composition of submicron PM due to pollution downwind of the Manaus metropolitan region are reported as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a suite of other gas- and particle-phase instruments were deployed at the T3 research site, 70km downwind of Manaus, during the wet season. At this site, organic components represented 79±7% of the non-refractory PM1 mass concentration on average, which was in the same range as several upwind sites. However, the organic PM1 was considerably more oxidized at T3 compared to upwind measurements. Positive-matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the time series of organic mass spectra collected at the T3 site, yielding three factors representing secondary processes (73±15% of total organic mass concentration) and three factors representing primary anthropogenic emissions (27±15%). Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) was applied to the afternoon time series ofmore » concentrations of NOy, ozone, total particle number, black carbon, and sulfate. Four clusters were identified and characterized by distinct air mass origins and particle compositions. Two clusters, Bkgd-1 and Bkgd-2, were associated with background conditions. Bkgd-1 appeared to represent near-field atmospheric PM production and oxidation of a day or less. Bkgd-2 appeared to represent material transported and oxidized for two or more days, often with out-of-basin contributions. Two other clusters, Pol-1 and Pol-2, represented the Manaus influence, one apparently associated with the northern region of Manaus and the other with the southern region of the city. A composite of the PMF and FCM analyses provided insights into the anthropogenic effects on PM concentration and composition. The increase in mass concentration of submicron PM ranged from 25% to 200% under polluted compared with background conditions, including contributions from both primary and secondary PM. Furthermore, a comparison of PMF factor loadings for different clusters suggested a shift in the pathways of PM production under polluted conditions. Nitrogen oxides may have played a critical role in these shifts. Increased concentrations of nitrogen oxides can shift pathways of PM production from HO2-dominant to NO-dominant as well as increase the concentrations of oxidants in the atmosphere. Consequently, the oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic precursor gases as well as the oxidative processing of preexisting atmospheric PM can be accelerated. This combined set of results demonstrates the susceptibility of atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and associated climate forcing to anthropogenic perturbations over tropical forests.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [4] more »;  [7]; ORCiD logo [11];  [16]; ORCiD logo [15];  [17]; ORCiD logo [2];  [18] « less
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  4. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management
  5. Univ. of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Physics; Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. for Meteorological Physics (LaMP)
  6. Univ. of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Physics; Federal Univ. of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Inst. of Agricultural Sciences
  7. Amazonas State Univ., Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil). School of Technology
  8. National Inst. for Amazonian Research, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Federal Univ. of Para, Belem (Brazil). Dept. of Meteorology and Geosciences Inst.
  9. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management
  10. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Snow College, Richfield, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  11. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  12. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences
  13. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC)
  14. Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Particle Chemistry Dept.
  15. Univ. of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Physics
  16. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Colby College, Waterville, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  17. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL)
  18. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Amazonas State Research Support Foundation (FAPEAM); National Science Foundation (NSF); Brazil Scientific Mobility Program (BSMP); Schlumberger Foundation; National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)
OSTI Identifier:
1466575
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1468615
Report Number(s):
BNL-208005-2018-JAAM; PNNL-SA-132381
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; SC0006680; SC0011115; SC0011105; FAPEAM 062.00568/2014; 134/2016; FAPESP 2013/05014-0; 1106400; 1332998; FP-91761701-0; AC0576RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

de Sá, Suzane S., Palm, Brett B., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Day, Douglas A., Hu, Weiwei, Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel, Yee, Lindsay D., Brito, Joel, Carbone, Samara, Ribeiro, Igor O., Cirino, Glauber G., Liu, Yingjun, Thalman, Ryan, Sedlacek, Arthur, Funk, Aaron, Schumacher, Courtney, Shilling, John E., Schneider, Johannes, Artaxo, Paulo, Goldstein, Allen H., Souza, Rodrigo A. F., Wang, Jian, McKinney, Karena A., Barbosa, Henrique, Alexander, M. Lizabeth, Jimenez, Jose L., and Martin, Scot T. Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.5194/acp-18-12185-2018.
de Sá, Suzane S., Palm, Brett B., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Day, Douglas A., Hu, Weiwei, Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel, Yee, Lindsay D., Brito, Joel, Carbone, Samara, Ribeiro, Igor O., Cirino, Glauber G., Liu, Yingjun, Thalman, Ryan, Sedlacek, Arthur, Funk, Aaron, Schumacher, Courtney, Shilling, John E., Schneider, Johannes, Artaxo, Paulo, Goldstein, Allen H., Souza, Rodrigo A. F., Wang, Jian, McKinney, Karena A., Barbosa, Henrique, Alexander, M. Lizabeth, Jimenez, Jose L., & Martin, Scot T. Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia. United States. doi:10.5194/acp-18-12185-2018.
de Sá, Suzane S., Palm, Brett B., Campuzano-Jost, Pedro, Day, Douglas A., Hu, Weiwei, Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel, Yee, Lindsay D., Brito, Joel, Carbone, Samara, Ribeiro, Igor O., Cirino, Glauber G., Liu, Yingjun, Thalman, Ryan, Sedlacek, Arthur, Funk, Aaron, Schumacher, Courtney, Shilling, John E., Schneider, Johannes, Artaxo, Paulo, Goldstein, Allen H., Souza, Rodrigo A. F., Wang, Jian, McKinney, Karena A., Barbosa, Henrique, Alexander, M. Lizabeth, Jimenez, Jose L., and Martin, Scot T. Thu . "Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia". United States. doi:10.5194/acp-18-12185-2018. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1466575.
@article{osti_1466575,
title = {Urban influence on the concentration and composition of submicron particulate matter in central Amazonia},
author = {de Sá, Suzane S. and Palm, Brett B. and Campuzano-Jost, Pedro and Day, Douglas A. and Hu, Weiwei and Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel and Yee, Lindsay D. and Brito, Joel and Carbone, Samara and Ribeiro, Igor O. and Cirino, Glauber G. and Liu, Yingjun and Thalman, Ryan and Sedlacek, Arthur and Funk, Aaron and Schumacher, Courtney and Shilling, John E. and Schneider, Johannes and Artaxo, Paulo and Goldstein, Allen H. and Souza, Rodrigo A. F. and Wang, Jian and McKinney, Karena A. and Barbosa, Henrique and Alexander, M. Lizabeth and Jimenez, Jose L. and Martin, Scot T.},
abstractNote = {An understanding of how anthropogenic emissions affect the concentrations and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM) is fundamental to quantifying the influence of human activities on climate and air quality. The central Amazon Basin, especially around the city of Manaus, Brazil, has experienced rapid changes in the past decades due to ongoing urbanization. Herein, changes in the concentration and composition of submicron PM due to pollution downwind of the Manaus metropolitan region are reported as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a suite of other gas- and particle-phase instruments were deployed at the T3 research site, 70km downwind of Manaus, during the wet season. At this site, organic components represented 79±7% of the non-refractory PM1 mass concentration on average, which was in the same range as several upwind sites. However, the organic PM1 was considerably more oxidized at T3 compared to upwind measurements. Positive-matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the time series of organic mass spectra collected at the T3 site, yielding three factors representing secondary processes (73±15% of total organic mass concentration) and three factors representing primary anthropogenic emissions (27±15%). Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) was applied to the afternoon time series of concentrations of NOy, ozone, total particle number, black carbon, and sulfate. Four clusters were identified and characterized by distinct air mass origins and particle compositions. Two clusters, Bkgd-1 and Bkgd-2, were associated with background conditions. Bkgd-1 appeared to represent near-field atmospheric PM production and oxidation of a day or less. Bkgd-2 appeared to represent material transported and oxidized for two or more days, often with out-of-basin contributions. Two other clusters, Pol-1 and Pol-2, represented the Manaus influence, one apparently associated with the northern region of Manaus and the other with the southern region of the city. A composite of the PMF and FCM analyses provided insights into the anthropogenic effects on PM concentration and composition. The increase in mass concentration of submicron PM ranged from 25% to 200% under polluted compared with background conditions, including contributions from both primary and secondary PM. Furthermore, a comparison of PMF factor loadings for different clusters suggested a shift in the pathways of PM production under polluted conditions. Nitrogen oxides may have played a critical role in these shifts. Increased concentrations of nitrogen oxides can shift pathways of PM production from HO2-dominant to NO-dominant as well as increase the concentrations of oxidants in the atmosphere. Consequently, the oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic precursor gases as well as the oxidative processing of preexisting atmospheric PM can be accelerated. This combined set of results demonstrates the susceptibility of atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and associated climate forcing to anthropogenic perturbations over tropical forests.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-18-12185-2018},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 16,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: (a) Mass concentrations of PM1 species at T3 during the wet season of 2014 (IOP1). Non-refractory (NR) PM1 species of organic, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and chloride were measured by the AMS. Mass concentrations of black carbon were obtained by scaling aethalometer measurements by a factor of 2 basedmore » on the range of 1 to 3 for the comparison of SP2 to aethalometer measurements. The temporal trend of the two instruments agreed well. (b) Comparison of the summed mass concentrations of (top) non-refractory PM1 species and (bottom) the mass fractions of these species at T3 and three other regional sites. T0a-2015 refers to measurements in the wet season of 2015 at the ATTO location (Andreae et al., 2015). T0t-2008 refers to the AMAZE-08 experiment, which took place in the wet season of 2008 at the TT34 location (Chen et al., 2015). T2-2014 refers to measurements made during IOP1 at a site 8 km downwind of Manaus, just across the Black River (“Rio Negro”) (Cirino et al., 2018). Measurements at T0a in 2015 and at T2 in 2014 were made by an ACSM, and measurements at T0t in 2008 and at T3 in 2014 were made by an AMS. Concentrations were adjusted to standard temperature (273.15 K) and pressure (105 Pa) (STP). The variability of measurements across sites is evaluated in Fig. 2.« less

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Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds
journal, January 2006

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Diel and seasonal changes of biogenic volatile organic compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforest
journal, January 2015

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Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Isoprene Photooxidation
journal, March 2006

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  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, Issue 6
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Mass spectrometric analysis and aerodynamic properties of various types of combustion-related aerosol particles
journal, December 2006

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Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry
journal, March 2010

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Field-Deployable, High-Resolution, Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
journal, December 2006

  • DeCarlo, Peter F.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Trimborn, Achim
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 78, Issue 24
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Determination of malic acid and other C4 dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric aerosol samples
journal, March 2002


Real-Time Methods for Estimating Organic Component Mass Concentrations from Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Data
journal, February 2011

  • Ng, N. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 3
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Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber
journal, January 2013

  • Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 12
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Influence of local circulations on wind, moisture, and precipitation close to Manaus City, Amazon Region, Brazil
journal, December 2014

  • dos Santos, Mercel J.; Silva Dias, Maria A. F.; Freitas, Edmilson D.
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Isoprene photo-oxidation products quantify the effect of pollution on hydroxyl radicals over Amazonia
journal, April 2018


Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions
journal, January 2013

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Airborne measurements of organosulfates over the continental U.S.: organosulfates over the continental US
journal, April 2015

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The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
journal, May 2014

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Sources and properties of Amazonian aerosol particles
journal, January 2010

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Recent advances in understanding secondary organic aerosol: Implications for global climate forcing: Advances in Secondary Organic Aerosol
journal, June 2017

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Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment
journal, January 2017

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Monoterpenes are the largest source of summertime organic aerosol in the southeastern United States
journal, February 2018

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Budget of organic carbon in a polluted atmosphere: Results from the New England Air Quality Study in 2002
journal, January 2005


Isoprene Epoxydiols as Precursors to Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation: Acid-Catalyzed Reactive Uptake Studies with Authentic Compounds
journal, November 2011

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Exploring the vertical profile of atmospheric organic aerosol: comparing 17 aircraft field campaigns with a global model
journal, January 2011


Identification and quantification of organic aerosol from cooking and other sources in Barcelona using aerosol mass spectrometer data
journal, January 2012

  • Mohr, C.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.
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Anthropogenic influence on SOA and the resulting radiative forcing
journal, January 2009

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Ein Spektrograph f�r Niederschlagstropfen mit automatischer Auswertung
journal, January 1967

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Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load
journal, January 2010

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An overview of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2008 (AMAZE-08)
journal, January 2010

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A review of the anthropogenic influence on biogenic secondary organic aerosol
journal, January 2011

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Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications
journal, January 2015

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Deconvolution and Quantification of Hydrocarbon-like and Oxygenated Organic Aerosols Based on Aerosol Mass Spectrometry
journal, July 2005

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Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies
journal, January 2011

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Understanding atmospheric organic aerosols via factor analysis of aerosol mass spectrometry: a review
journal, October 2011

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Observations of Manaus urban plume evolution and interaction with biogenic emissions in GoAmazon 2014/5
journal, October 2018


Chemical Characterization of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Oxidation of Isoprene Hydroxyhydroperoxides
journal, September 2016

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To What Extent Can Biogenic SOA be Controlled?
journal, May 2010

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Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers and application to pristine submicron aerosol measurements in Amazonia
journal, January 2011

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Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)
journal, January 2015

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Sources of particulate matter in the northeastern United States in summer: 1. Direct emissions and secondary formation of organic matter in urban plumes
journal, January 2008

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Unexpected Epoxide Formation in the Gas-Phase Photooxidation of Isoprene
journal, August 2009