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Title: Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment

Abstract

Sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 provides an attractive low-cost, environmentally benign and stable photovoltaic material, yet the record power conversion efficiency for such solar cells has been stagnant at around 9% for years. Severe non-radiative recombination within the heterojunction region is a major cause limiting voltage output and overall performance. Here we report a certified 11% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell with a high 730 mV open-circuit voltage using heat treatment to reduce heterojunction recombination. This heat treatment facilitates elemental inter-diffusion, directly inducing Cd atoms to occupy Zn or Cu lattice sites, and promotes Na accumulation accompanied by local Cu deficiency within the heterojunction region. Consequently, new phases are formed near the hetero-interface and more favourable conduction band alignment is obtained, contributing to reduced non-radiative recombination. Using this approach, we also demonstrate a certified centimetre-scale (1.11 cm2) 10% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic device; the first kesterite cell (including selenium-containing) of standard centimetre-size to exceed 10%.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia)
  4. East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1466563
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-72245
Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2058-7546
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; conversion efficiency; copper; copper compounds; efficiency; energy efficiency; heat treatment; heterojunctions; open circuit voltage; solar cells; solar power generation; tin compounds zinc compounds

Citation Formats

Yan, Chang, Huang, Jialiang, Sun, Kaiwen, Johnston, Steve, Zhang, Yuanfang, Sun, Heng, Pu, Aobo, He, Mingrui, Liu, Fangyang, Eder, Katja, Yang, Limei, Cairney, Julie M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Hameiri, Ziv, Stride, John A., Chen, Shiyou, Green, Martin A., and Hao, Xiaojing. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0206-0.
Yan, Chang, Huang, Jialiang, Sun, Kaiwen, Johnston, Steve, Zhang, Yuanfang, Sun, Heng, Pu, Aobo, He, Mingrui, Liu, Fangyang, Eder, Katja, Yang, Limei, Cairney, Julie M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Hameiri, Ziv, Stride, John A., Chen, Shiyou, Green, Martin A., & Hao, Xiaojing. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0206-0
Yan, Chang, Huang, Jialiang, Sun, Kaiwen, Johnston, Steve, Zhang, Yuanfang, Sun, Heng, Pu, Aobo, He, Mingrui, Liu, Fangyang, Eder, Katja, Yang, Limei, Cairney, Julie M., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Hameiri, Ziv, Stride, John A., Chen, Shiyou, Green, Martin A., and Hao, Xiaojing. Mon . "Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0206-0. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1466563.
@article{osti_1466563,
title = {Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with over 10% power conversion efficiency enabled by heterojunction heat treatment},
author = {Yan, Chang and Huang, Jialiang and Sun, Kaiwen and Johnston, Steve and Zhang, Yuanfang and Sun, Heng and Pu, Aobo and He, Mingrui and Liu, Fangyang and Eder, Katja and Yang, Limei and Cairney, Julie M. and Ekins-Daukes, N. J. and Hameiri, Ziv and Stride, John A. and Chen, Shiyou and Green, Martin A. and Hao, Xiaojing},
abstractNote = {Sulfide kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 provides an attractive low-cost, environmentally benign and stable photovoltaic material, yet the record power conversion efficiency for such solar cells has been stagnant at around 9% for years. Severe non-radiative recombination within the heterojunction region is a major cause limiting voltage output and overall performance. Here we report a certified 11% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell with a high 730 mV open-circuit voltage using heat treatment to reduce heterojunction recombination. This heat treatment facilitates elemental inter-diffusion, directly inducing Cd atoms to occupy Zn or Cu lattice sites, and promotes Na accumulation accompanied by local Cu deficiency within the heterojunction region. Consequently, new phases are formed near the hetero-interface and more favourable conduction band alignment is obtained, contributing to reduced non-radiative recombination. Using this approach, we also demonstrate a certified centimetre-scale (1.11 cm2) 10% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic device; the first kesterite cell (including selenium-containing) of standard centimetre-size to exceed 10%.},
doi = {10.1038/s41560-018-0206-0},
journal = {Nature Energy},
number = 9,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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    journal, August 2019

    • Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Haass, Stefan G.; Giraldo, Sergio
    • Journal of Physics: Energy, Vol. 1, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/2515-7655/ab23bc

    Physical routes for the synthesis of kesterite
    journal, September 2019


    Back and front contacts in kesterite solar cells: state-of-the-art and open questions
    journal, October 2019

    • Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Barreau, Nicolas; Bär, Marcus
    • Journal of Physics: Energy, Vol. 1, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/2515-7655/ab3708

    Tailored multifunctional micellar brushes via crystallization-driven growth from a surface
    journal, November 2019


    Aqueous-based Binary Sulfide Nanoparticle Inks for Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Stabilized with Tin(IV) Chalcogenide Complexes
    journal, September 2019

    • Wang, Han; Yasin, Amrita; Quitoriano, Nathaniel
    • Nanomaterials, Vol. 9, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.3390/nano9101382

    Fabrication of Ag and Mn Co-Doped Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film
    journal, October 2019