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Title: Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment

Abstract

Here, the lithium vapor box divertor is a concept for handling the extreme divertor heat fluxes in magnetic fusion devices. In a baffled slot divertor, plasma interacts with a dense cloud of Li vapor which radiates and cools the plasma, leading to recombination and detachment. Before testing on a tokamak, the concept should be validated: we plan to study detachment and heat redistribution by a Li vapor cloud in laboratory experiments. Mass changes and temperatures are measured to validate a direct simulation Monte Carlo model of neutral Li. The initial experiment involves a 5 cm diameter steel box containing 10 g of Li held at 650 °C as vapor flows out a wide nozzle into a similarly sized box at a lower temperature. Diagnosis is made challenging by the required material compatibility with lithium vapor. Vapor pressure is a steep function of temperature, so to validate mass flow models to within 10%, absolute temperature to within 4.5 K is required. The apparatus is designed to be used with an analytical balance to determine mass transport. Details of the apparatus and methods of temperature and mass flow measurements are presented.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1465999
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1463940
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-09CH11466]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 10]; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; lithium; divertor; detachment; vapor

Citation Formats

Schwartz, J. A., Emdee, E. D., Jaworski, M. A., and Goldston, R. J. Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5039406.
Schwartz, J. A., Emdee, E. D., Jaworski, M. A., & Goldston, R. J. Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5039406.
Schwartz, J. A., Emdee, E. D., Jaworski, M. A., and Goldston, R. J. Fri . "Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5039406. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1465999.
@article{osti_1465999,
title = {Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment},
author = {Schwartz, J. A. and Emdee, E. D. and Jaworski, M. A. and Goldston, R. J.},
abstractNote = {Here, the lithium vapor box divertor is a concept for handling the extreme divertor heat fluxes in magnetic fusion devices. In a baffled slot divertor, plasma interacts with a dense cloud of Li vapor which radiates and cools the plasma, leading to recombination and detachment. Before testing on a tokamak, the concept should be validated: we plan to study detachment and heat redistribution by a Li vapor cloud in laboratory experiments. Mass changes and temperatures are measured to validate a direct simulation Monte Carlo model of neutral Li. The initial experiment involves a 5 cm diameter steel box containing 10 g of Li held at 650 °C as vapor flows out a wide nozzle into a similarly sized box at a lower temperature. Diagnosis is made challenging by the required material compatibility with lithium vapor. Vapor pressure is a steep function of temperature, so to validate mass flow models to within 10%, absolute temperature to within 4.5 K is required. The apparatus is designed to be used with an analytical balance to determine mass transport. Details of the apparatus and methods of temperature and mass flow measurements are presented.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5039406},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = [10],
volume = [89],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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Cited by: 2 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Lithium Vapor Cell and Discharge Lamp Using MgO Windows
journal, September 1971

  • Slabinski, Victor J.; Smith, R. Lowell
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 42, Issue 9
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Monte Carlo Simulation of Gas Flows
journal, January 1978


Operational characteristics of the high flux plasma generator Magnum-PSI
journal, October 2014


Irreversible thermoelectric changes in type K and type N thermocouple alloys within Nicrosil-sheathed MIMS cable
journal, December 1989


Sensitivity of detachment extent to magnetic configuration and external parameters
journal, April 2016


Recent advances towards a lithium vapor box divertor
journal, August 2017


Thermal conductivity of Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel
journal, September 1987

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Plasma detachment in divertor tokamaks
journal, February 2018


Pression de vapeur saturante du lithium entre 462° et 642°
journal, January 1939


Heat‐Pipe Oven: A New, Well‐Defined Metal Vapor Device for Spectroscopic Measurements
journal, July 1969

  • Vidal, C. R.; Cooper, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1658190

The lithium vapor box divertor
journal, January 2016


Evaluation of Vapor‐Pressure Data for Mercury, Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium
journal, April 1963

  • Hicks, W. T.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 38, Issue 8
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Sorption of atmospheric gases by bulk lithium metal
journal, January 2016


Thermoelectric hysteresis in nickel-based thermocouple alloys
journal, December 1989


Direct simulation Monte Carlo: The quest for speed
conference, January 2014

  • Gallis, Michael A.; Torczynski, John R.; Plimpton, Steven J.
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 29TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RAREFIED GAS DYNAMICS, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4902571

Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation
journal, November 2010


Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment
dataset, January 2018

  • Schwartz, J.; Emdee, E.; Jaworski, M.
  • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  • DOI: 10.11578/1562010

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Thermal conductivity of Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel
    journal, September 1987

    • Sweet, J. N.; Roth, E. P.; Moss, M.
    • International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 8, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf00503645

    Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation
    journal, November 2010


    Operational characteristics of the high flux plasma generator Magnum-PSI
    journal, October 2014


    Sorption of atmospheric gases by bulk lithium metal
    journal, January 2016


    Recent advances towards a lithium vapor box divertor
    journal, August 2017


    Pression de vapeur saturante du lithium entre 462° et 642°
    journal, January 1939


    Heat‐Pipe Oven: A New, Well‐Defined Metal Vapor Device for Spectroscopic Measurements
    journal, July 1969

    • Vidal, C. R.; Cooper, J.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 40, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1658190

    Lithium Vapor Cell and Discharge Lamp Using MgO Windows
    journal, September 1971

    • Slabinski, Victor J.; Smith, R. Lowell
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 42, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1685379

    Evaluation of Vapor‐Pressure Data for Mercury, Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium
    journal, April 1963

    • Hicks, W. T.
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 38, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1733889

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo: The quest for speed
    conference, January 2014

    • Gallis, Michael A.; Torczynski, John R.; Plimpton, Steven J.
    • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 29TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RAREFIED GAS DYNAMICS, AIP Conference Proceedings
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4902571

    Thermoelectric hysteresis in nickel-based thermocouple alloys
    journal, December 1989


    Irreversible thermoelectric changes in type K and type N thermocouple alloys within Nicrosil-sheathed MIMS cable
    journal, December 1989


    Sensitivity of detachment extent to magnetic configuration and external parameters
    journal, April 2016


    The lithium vapor box divertor
    journal, January 2016


    Plasma detachment in divertor tokamaks
    journal, February 2018


    Monte Carlo Simulation of Gas Flows
    journal, January 1978


    Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment
    dataset, January 2018

    • Schwartz, J.; Emdee, E.; Jaworski, M.
    • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
    • DOI: 10.11578/1562010