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Title: All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures

A fundamental building block for nanophotonics is the ability to achieve negative refraction of polaritons, because this could enable the demonstration of many unique nanoscale applications such as deep-subwavelength imaging, superlens, and novel guiding. However, to achieve negative refraction of highly squeezed polaritons, such as plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride (BN) with their wavelengths squeezed by a factor over 100, requires the ability to flip the sign of their group velocity at will, which is challenging. Here we reveal that the strong coupling between plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–BN heterostructures can be used to flip the sign of the group velocity of the resulting hybrid (plasmon–phonon–polariton) modes. We predict all-angle negative refraction between plasmon and phonon polaritons and, even more surprisingly, between hybrid graphene plasmons and between hybrid phonon polaritons. Graphene–BN heterostructures thus provide a versatile platform for the design of nanometasurfaces and nanoimaging elements.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)
  4. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-97ER25308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Research Org:
Krell Inst., Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS
OSTI Identifier:
1465778

Lin, Xiao, Yang, Yi, Rivera, Nicholas, López, Josué J., Shen, Yichen, Kaminer, Ido, Chen, Hongsheng, Zhang, Baile, Joannopoulos, John D., and Soljačić, Marin. All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701830114.
Lin, Xiao, Yang, Yi, Rivera, Nicholas, López, Josué J., Shen, Yichen, Kaminer, Ido, Chen, Hongsheng, Zhang, Baile, Joannopoulos, John D., & Soljačić, Marin. All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701830114.
Lin, Xiao, Yang, Yi, Rivera, Nicholas, López, Josué J., Shen, Yichen, Kaminer, Ido, Chen, Hongsheng, Zhang, Baile, Joannopoulos, John D., and Soljačić, Marin. 2017. "All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701830114. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1465778.
@article{osti_1465778,
title = {All-angle negative refraction of highly squeezed plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–boron nitride heterostructures},
author = {Lin, Xiao and Yang, Yi and Rivera, Nicholas and López, Josué J. and Shen, Yichen and Kaminer, Ido and Chen, Hongsheng and Zhang, Baile and Joannopoulos, John D. and Soljačić, Marin},
abstractNote = {A fundamental building block for nanophotonics is the ability to achieve negative refraction of polaritons, because this could enable the demonstration of many unique nanoscale applications such as deep-subwavelength imaging, superlens, and novel guiding. However, to achieve negative refraction of highly squeezed polaritons, such as plasmon polaritons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride (BN) with their wavelengths squeezed by a factor over 100, requires the ability to flip the sign of their group velocity at will, which is challenging. Here we reveal that the strong coupling between plasmon and phonon polaritons in graphene–BN heterostructures can be used to flip the sign of the group velocity of the resulting hybrid (plasmon–phonon–polariton) modes. We predict all-angle negative refraction between plasmon and phonon polaritons and, even more surprisingly, between hybrid graphene plasmons and between hybrid phonon polaritons. Graphene–BN heterostructures thus provide a versatile platform for the design of nanometasurfaces and nanoimaging elements.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1701830114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 26,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Wafer-Scale Growth of Single-Crystal Monolayer Graphene on Reusable Hydrogen-Terminated Germanium
journal, April 2014

Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens
journal, October 2000

Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction
journal, April 2001

The rise of graphene
journal, March 2007
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  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3, p. 183-191
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1849