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Title: Macrophage-mediated delivery of light activated nitric oxide prodrugs with spatial, temporal and concentration control

Nitric oxide (NO) holds great promise as a treatment for cancer hypoxia, if its concentration and localization can be precisely controlled. Here, we report a "Trojan Horse" strategy to provide the necessary spatial, temporal, and dosage control of such drug-delivery therapies at targeted tissues. Described is a unique package consisting of (1) a manganese-nitrosyl complex, which is a photoactivated NO-releasing moiety (photoNORM), plus Nd 3+-doped upconverting nanoparticles (Nd-UCNPs) incorporated into (2) biodegradable polymer microparticles that are taken up by (3) bone-marrow derived murine macrophages. Both the photoNORM [Mn(NO)dpaq NO2]BPh 4(dpaq NO2 = 2-[N,N-bis(pyridin-2-yl-methyl)]-amino-N'-5-nitro-quinolin-8-yl-acetamido) and the Nd-UCNPs are activated by tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light at ~800 nm. Thus, simultaneous therapeutic NO delivery and photoluminescence (PL) imaging can be achieved with a NIR diode laser source. The loaded microparticles are non-toxic to their macrophage hosts in the absence of light. The microparticle-carrying macrophages deeply penetrate into NIH-3T3/4T1 tumor spheroid models, and when the infiltrated spheroids are irradiated with NIR light, NO is released in quantifiable amounts while emission from the Nd-UCNPs provides images of microparticle location. Furthermore, varying the intensity of the NIR excitation allows photochemical control over NO release. Low doses reduce levels of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) inmore » the tumor cells, while high doses are cytotoxic. The use of macrophages to carry microparticles with a NIR photo-activated theranostic payload into a tumor overcomes challenges often faced with therapeutic administration of NO and offers the potential of multiple treatment strategies with a single system.Macrophage-mediated targeting and photochemical release provides spatial-temporal control of nitric oxide delivery to tumor spheroids.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
  3. Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 15; Related Information: © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018.; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6520
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1465427