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Title: Cosmic Bell Test Using Random Measurement Settings from High-Redshift Quasars

Abstract

In this Letter, we present a cosmic Bell experiment with polarization-entangled photons, in which measurement settings were determined based on real-time measurements of the wavelength of photons from high-redshift quasars, whose light was emitted billions of years ago; the experiment simultaneously ensures locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons and that the wavelength of the quasar photons had not been selectively altered or previewed between emission and detection, we observe statistically significant violation of Bell’s inequality by 9.3 standard deviations, corresponding to an estimated p value of ≲ 7.4 × 10 -21. This experiment pushes back to at least ~ 7.8 Gyr ago the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have exploited the “freedom-of-choice” loophole to engineer the observed Bell violation, excluding any such mechanism from 96% of the space-time volume of the past light cone of our experiment, extending from the big bang to today.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); Austrian Academy of Sciences; National Science Foundation (NSF); U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
OSTI Identifier:
1465237
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1501849
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0012567; PHY-1541160]
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Journal Volume: 121 Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Rauch, Dominik, Handsteiner, Johannes, Hochrainer, Armin, Gallicchio, Jason, Friedman, Andrew S., Leung, Calvin, Liu, Bo, Bulla, Lukas, Ecker, Sebastian, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Hu, Beili, Leon, David, Benn, Chris, Ghedina, Adriano, Cecconi, Massimo, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, and Zeilinger, Anton. Cosmic Bell Test Using Random Measurement Settings from High-Redshift Quasars. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.080403.
Rauch, Dominik, Handsteiner, Johannes, Hochrainer, Armin, Gallicchio, Jason, Friedman, Andrew S., Leung, Calvin, Liu, Bo, Bulla, Lukas, Ecker, Sebastian, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Hu, Beili, Leon, David, Benn, Chris, Ghedina, Adriano, Cecconi, Massimo, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, & Zeilinger, Anton. Cosmic Bell Test Using Random Measurement Settings from High-Redshift Quasars. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.080403.
Rauch, Dominik, Handsteiner, Johannes, Hochrainer, Armin, Gallicchio, Jason, Friedman, Andrew S., Leung, Calvin, Liu, Bo, Bulla, Lukas, Ecker, Sebastian, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Hu, Beili, Leon, David, Benn, Chris, Ghedina, Adriano, Cecconi, Massimo, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, and Zeilinger, Anton. Mon . "Cosmic Bell Test Using Random Measurement Settings from High-Redshift Quasars". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.080403.
@article{osti_1465237,
title = {Cosmic Bell Test Using Random Measurement Settings from High-Redshift Quasars},
author = {Rauch, Dominik and Handsteiner, Johannes and Hochrainer, Armin and Gallicchio, Jason and Friedman, Andrew S. and Leung, Calvin and Liu, Bo and Bulla, Lukas and Ecker, Sebastian and Steinlechner, Fabian and Ursin, Rupert and Hu, Beili and Leon, David and Benn, Chris and Ghedina, Adriano and Cecconi, Massimo and Guth, Alan H. and Kaiser, David I. and Scheidl, Thomas and Zeilinger, Anton},
abstractNote = {In this Letter, we present a cosmic Bell experiment with polarization-entangled photons, in which measurement settings were determined based on real-time measurements of the wavelength of photons from high-redshift quasars, whose light was emitted billions of years ago; the experiment simultaneously ensures locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons and that the wavelength of the quasar photons had not been selectively altered or previewed between emission and detection, we observe statistically significant violation of Bell’s inequality by 9.3 standard deviations, corresponding to an estimated p value of ≲ 7.4 × 10-21. This experiment pushes back to at least ~ 7.8 Gyr ago the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have exploited the “freedom-of-choice” loophole to engineer the observed Bell violation, excluding any such mechanism from 96% of the space-time volume of the past light cone of our experiment, extending from the big bang to today.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.080403},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = [8],
volume = [121],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.080403

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1. FIG. 1. : The experimental stations for our cosmic Bell test. Alice’s station received cosmic photons with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), whose primary mirror diameter is 3.58 m, while Bob’s station received cosmic photons with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), whose primary mirror diameter is 4.20 m. Polarization entangledmore » photons were sent from the source to Alice and Bob. Diameters and focal lengths of the quantum channel telescopes were Tx: d = 70 mm, f = 280 mm; Rx: d = 140 mm, feff = 1470 mm. Latitude, longitude, and elevation for the experimental sites were Alice (A: 28.75410°, −17.88915°, 2375 m), Bob (B: 28.760636°, −17.8816861°, 2352 m), and the Source (S: 28.757189°, −17.884961°, 2385 m). The distances from Source to Bob and Alice were 500 and 534 m, respectively.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.