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Title: General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points

Here, we present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)—exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light–matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [4]
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Physics Dept. and Solid State Inst.
  3. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics
  4. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
  5. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.
  6. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0001299
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Research Org:
Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1465127

Pick, Adi, Zhen, Bo, Miller, Owen D., Hsu, Chia W., Hernandez, Felipe, Rodriguez, Alejandro W., Soljačić, Marin, and Johnson, Steven G.. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1364/OE.25.012325.
Pick, Adi, Zhen, Bo, Miller, Owen D., Hsu, Chia W., Hernandez, Felipe, Rodriguez, Alejandro W., Soljačić, Marin, & Johnson, Steven G.. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points. United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.012325.
Pick, Adi, Zhen, Bo, Miller, Owen D., Hsu, Chia W., Hernandez, Felipe, Rodriguez, Alejandro W., Soljačić, Marin, and Johnson, Steven G.. 2017. "General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points". United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.012325. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1465127.
@article{osti_1465127,
title = {General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points},
author = {Pick, Adi and Zhen, Bo and Miller, Owen D. and Hsu, Chia W. and Hernandez, Felipe and Rodriguez, Alejandro W. and Soljačić, Marin and Johnson, Steven G.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)—exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light–matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.},
doi = {10.1364/OE.25.012325},
journal = {Optics Express},
number = 11,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}