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Title: Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW / cm 2 is observed at a source temperature of 450°C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. Furthermore, the measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-2950J
Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019; PRAHB2; 662295
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1464206
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1439137

Shank, Joshua, Kadlec, Emil A., Jarecki, Robert L., Starbuck, Andrew, Howell, Stephen, Peters, David W., and Davids, Paul S.. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.054040.
Shank, Joshua, Kadlec, Emil A., Jarecki, Robert L., Starbuck, Andrew, Howell, Stephen, Peters, David W., & Davids, Paul S.. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.054040.
Shank, Joshua, Kadlec, Emil A., Jarecki, Robert L., Starbuck, Andrew, Howell, Stephen, Peters, David W., and Davids, Paul S.. 2018. "Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.054040.
@article{osti_1464206,
title = {Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna},
author = {Shank, Joshua and Kadlec, Emil A. and Jarecki, Robert L. and Starbuck, Andrew and Howell, Stephen and Peters, David W. and Davids, Paul S.},
abstractNote = {Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW / cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450°C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. Furthermore, the measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.054040},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 5,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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