DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Perspectives on the basic and applied aspects of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) research

Abstract

Here, due to public concerns about the decreasing supply of blue water and increasing heat and drought stress on plant growth caused by urbanization, increasing human population and climate change, interest in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a specialized type of photosynthesis enhancing water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, has increased markedly. Significant progress has been achieved in both basic and applied research in CAM plants since the beginning of this century. Here we provide a brief overview of the current status of CAM research, and discuss future needs and opportunities in a wide range of areas including systems biology, synthetic biology, and utilization of CAM crops for human benefit, with a focus on the following aspects: application of genome-editing technology and high-throughput phenotyping to functional genomics research in model CAM species and genetic improvement of CAM crops, challenges for multi-scale metabolic modeling of CAM systems, opportunities and new strategies for CAM pathway engineering to enhance WUE and drought tolerance in C3 (and C4) photosynthesis crops, potential of CAM species as resources for food, feed, natural products, pharmaceuticals and biofuels, and development of CAM crops for ecological and aesthetic benefits.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Southwest Univ. of Science and Technology, Sichuan (China)
  5. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
  6. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1464013
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1582986
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; SC0008834
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Plant Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 274; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9452
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Crassulacean acid metabolism; Genome editing; Metabolic modeling; Synthetic biology; Water-use efficiency; Natural products

Citation Formats

Liu, Degao, Palla, Kaitlin J., Hu, Rongbin, Moseley, Robert C., Mendoza, Christopher, Chen, Mei, Abraham, Paul E., Labbe, Jessy L., Kalluri, Udaya C., Tschaplinski, Timothy J., Cushman, John C., Borland, Anne M., Tuskan, Gerald A., and Yang, Xiaohan. Perspectives on the basic and applied aspects of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) research. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.012.
Liu, Degao, Palla, Kaitlin J., Hu, Rongbin, Moseley, Robert C., Mendoza, Christopher, Chen, Mei, Abraham, Paul E., Labbe, Jessy L., Kalluri, Udaya C., Tschaplinski, Timothy J., Cushman, John C., Borland, Anne M., Tuskan, Gerald A., & Yang, Xiaohan. Perspectives on the basic and applied aspects of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) research. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.012
Liu, Degao, Palla, Kaitlin J., Hu, Rongbin, Moseley, Robert C., Mendoza, Christopher, Chen, Mei, Abraham, Paul E., Labbe, Jessy L., Kalluri, Udaya C., Tschaplinski, Timothy J., Cushman, John C., Borland, Anne M., Tuskan, Gerald A., and Yang, Xiaohan. Tue . "Perspectives on the basic and applied aspects of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) research". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.012. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1464013.
@article{osti_1464013,
title = {Perspectives on the basic and applied aspects of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) research},
author = {Liu, Degao and Palla, Kaitlin J. and Hu, Rongbin and Moseley, Robert C. and Mendoza, Christopher and Chen, Mei and Abraham, Paul E. and Labbe, Jessy L. and Kalluri, Udaya C. and Tschaplinski, Timothy J. and Cushman, John C. and Borland, Anne M. and Tuskan, Gerald A. and Yang, Xiaohan},
abstractNote = {Here, due to public concerns about the decreasing supply of blue water and increasing heat and drought stress on plant growth caused by urbanization, increasing human population and climate change, interest in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a specialized type of photosynthesis enhancing water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, has increased markedly. Significant progress has been achieved in both basic and applied research in CAM plants since the beginning of this century. Here we provide a brief overview of the current status of CAM research, and discuss future needs and opportunities in a wide range of areas including systems biology, synthetic biology, and utilization of CAM crops for human benefit, with a focus on the following aspects: application of genome-editing technology and high-throughput phenotyping to functional genomics research in model CAM species and genetic improvement of CAM crops, challenges for multi-scale metabolic modeling of CAM systems, opportunities and new strategies for CAM pathway engineering to enhance WUE and drought tolerance in C3 (and C4) photosynthesis crops, potential of CAM species as resources for food, feed, natural products, pharmaceuticals and biofuels, and development of CAM crops for ecological and aesthetic benefits.},
doi = {10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.06.012},
journal = {Plant Science},
number = C,
volume = 274,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Natural products from economically representative CAM crops and their applications.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world
journal, July 2015

  • Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 207, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.13393

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: A Curiosity in Context
journal, June 1978


Exploiting the potential of plants with crassulacean acid metabolism for bioenergy production on marginal lands
journal, April 2009

  • Borland, A. M.; Griffiths, H.; Hartwell, J.
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 60, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erp118

Engineering crassulacean acid metabolism to improve water-use efficiency
journal, May 2014


Agave as a biofuel feedstock in Australia: AGAVE IN AUSTRALIA
journal, December 2010


Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands
journal, April 2015

  • Cushman, John C.; Davis, Sarah C.; Yang, Xiaohan
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 66, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv087

On the Evolutionary Origin of CAM Photosynthesis
journal, April 2017

  • Bräutigam, Andrea; Schlüter, Urte; Eisenhut, Marion
  • Plant Physiology, Vol. 174, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1104/pp.17.00195

Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy: CAM engineering in trees
journal, December 2014

  • Borland, Anne M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Weston, David J.
  • Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 38, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/pce.12479

The Kalanchoë genome provides insights into convergent evolution and building blocks of crassulacean acid metabolism
journal, December 2017


The genome sequence of the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris
journal, November 2014

  • Cai, Jing; Liu, Xin; Vanneste, Kevin
  • Nature Genetics, Vol. 47, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ng.3149

Advances and perspectives on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in plant genomics research
journal, April 2016


An Agrobacterium -delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize
journal, September 2016

  • Char, Si Nian; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K.; Nahampun, Hartinio
  • Plant Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12611

Demonstration of CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA-mediated targeted gene modification in Arabidopsis, tobacco, sorghum and rice
journal, August 2013

  • Jiang, Wenzhi; Zhou, Huanbin; Bi, Honghao
  • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 41, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt780

Genome editing in maize directed by CRISPR–Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes
journal, November 2016

  • Svitashev, Sergei; Schwartz, Christine; Lenderts, Brian
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13274

Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion
journal, February 2017

  • Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Chao
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 35, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt.3811

DNA-free genome editing in plants with preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
journal, October 2015

  • Woo, Je Wook; Kim, Jungeun; Kwon, Soon Il
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 33, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt.3389

Efficient DNA-free genome editing of bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes
journal, January 2017

  • Liang, Zhen; Chen, Kunling; Li, Tingdong
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14261

Generation of targeted mutant rice using a CRISPR-Cpf1 system
journal, February 2017

  • Xu, Rongfang; Qin, Ruiying; Li, Hao
  • Plant Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 15, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12669

Efficient targeted mutagenesis of rice and tobacco genomes using Cpf1 from Francisella novicida
journal, December 2016

  • Endo, Akira; Masafumi, Mikami; Kaya, Hidetaka
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep38169

A CRISPR–Cpf1 system for efficient genome editing and transcriptional repression in plants
journal, February 2017


The CRISPR/Cas revolution reaches the RNA world: Cas13, a new Swiss Army knife for plant biologists
journal, May 2018

  • Wolter, Felix; Puchta, Holger
  • The Plant Journal, Vol. 94, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13899

Digenome-seq: genome-wide profiling of CRISPR-Cas9 off-target effects in human cells
journal, February 2015

  • Kim, Daesik; Bae, Sangsu; Park, Jeongbin
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.3284

CIRCLE-seq: a highly sensitive in vitro screen for genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 nuclease off-targets
journal, May 2017

  • Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Malagon-Lopez, Jose
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.4278

Emerging model systems for functional genomics analysis of Crassulacean acid metabolism
journal, June 2016

  • Hartwell, James; Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.
  • Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 31
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2016.03.019

Metabolism within the specialized guard cells of plants
journal, October 2017

  • Daloso, Danilo M.; Medeiros, David B.; dos Anjos, Letícia
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 216, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.14823

Isolation of a strong Arabidopsis guard cell promoter and its potential as a research tool
journal, January 2008

  • Yang, Yingzhen; Costa, Alex; Leonhardt, Nathalie
  • Plant Methods, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/1746-4811-4-6

Chemical-regulated, site-specific DNA excision in transgenic plants
journal, February 2001

  • Zuo, Jianru; Niu, Qi-Wen; Møller, Simon Geir
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 19, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/84428

Genetic transformation of Agave salmiana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and particle bombardment
journal, September 2007

  • Flores-Benítez, Silvia; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio
  • Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 91, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11240-007-9287-3

Genetic transformation of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
journal, July 2006

  • Silos-Espino, H.; Valdez-Ortiz, A.; Rascón-Cruz, Q.
  • Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 86, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11240-006-9123-1

Production of transgenic pineapple (Ananas cosmos (L.) Merr.) plants via adventitious bud regeneration
journal, April 2009

  • Wang, M. -L.; Uruu, G.; Xiong, L.
  • In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, Vol. 45, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11627-009-9208-8

Transgenic Perturbation of the Decarboxylation Phase of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Alters Physiology and Metabolism But Has Only a Small Effect on Growth
journal, November 2014

  • Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Kneřová, Jana
  • Plant Physiology, Vol. 167, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.251827

Morphogenic Regulators Baby boom and Wuschel Improve Monocot Transformation
journal, September 2016


Isolation and Characterization of Mutants of Common Ice Plant Deficient in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
journal, March 2008

  • Cushman, John C.; Agarie, Sakae; Albion, Rebecca L.
  • Plant Physiology, Vol. 147, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1104/pp.108.116889

Use of infrared thermal imaging to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in stomatal regulation
journal, June 2002


A Diel Flux Balance Model Captures Interactions between Light and Dark Metabolism during Day-Night Cycles in C 3 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Leaves
journal, March 2014

  • Cheung, C. Y. Maurice; Poolman, Mark G.; Fell, David. A.
  • Plant Physiology, Vol. 165, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1104/pp.113.234468

Computational analysis of the productivity potential of CAM
journal, February 2018


Temporal and spatial transcriptomic and micro RNA dynamics of CAM photosynthesis in pineapple
journal, August 2017

  • Wai, Ching M.; VanBuren, Robert; Zhang, Jisen
  • The Plant Journal, Vol. 92, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13630

Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants
journal, January 2018


Single-cell-type Proteomics: Toward a Holistic Understanding of Plant Function
journal, September 2012


Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics
journal, October 2014


Transcript, protein and metabolite temporal dynamics in the CAM plant Agave
journal, November 2016


Informing the improvement and biodesign of crassulacean acid metabolism via system dynamics modelling
journal, November 2013

  • Borland, Anne M.; Yang, Xiaohan
  • New Phytologist, Vol. 200, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/nph.12529

Productivity and water use efficiency of Agave americana in the first field trial as bioenergy feedstock on arid lands
journal, February 2016

  • Davis, Sarah C.; Kuzmick, Emily R.; Niechayev, Nicholas
  • GCB Bioenergy, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12324

Biomass characterization of Agave and Opuntia as potential biofuel feedstocks
journal, May 2015


Fast Pyrolysis of Opuntia ficus-indica (Prickly Pear) and Grindelia squarrosa (Gumweed)
journal, February 2018


Overexpression of IbP5CR enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato
journal, December 2013

  • Liu, Degao; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong
  • Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC), Vol. 117, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11240-013-0415-y

Photosynthesis, Reorganized
journal, April 2011


Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis
journal, March 2014

  • Winter, K.; Holtum, J. A. M.
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 65, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru063

OrchidBase: A Collection of Sequences of the Transcriptome Derived from Orchids
journal, January 2011

  • Fu, C. -H.; Chen, Y. -W.; Hsiao, Y. -Y.
  • Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol. 52, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcq201

Vernalization-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing by a Long Intronic Noncoding RNA
journal, December 2010


OrchidBase 2.0: Comprehensive Collection of Orchidaceae Floral Transcriptomes
journal, January 2013

  • Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Fu, Chih-Hsiung; Hsiao, Yu-Yun
  • Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol. 54, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcs187

De novo transcriptome assembly of drought tolerant CAM plants, Agave deserti and Agave tequilana
journal, January 2013


On the Dependency of Cellular Protein Levels on mRNA Abundance
journal, April 2016


Full Dynamic Range Proteome Analysis of S. cerevisiae by Targeted Proteomics
journal, August 2009


A Vitis vinifera basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor enhances plant cell size, vegetative biomass and reproductive yield
journal, April 2018

  • Lim, Sung Don; Yim, Won Choel; Liu, Degao
  • Plant Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 16, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12898

An innovative platform for quick and flexible joining of assorted DNA fragments
journal, January 2016

  • De Paoli, Henrique Cestari; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep19278

Enzymatic assembly of DNA molecules up to several hundred kilobases
journal, April 2009

  • Gibson, Daniel G.; Young, Lei; Chuang, Ray-Yuan
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 6, Issue 5, p. 343-345
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1318

Cactus: a medicinal food
journal, July 2011

  • Shetty, Anoop A.; Rana, M. K.; Preetham, S. P.
  • Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0462-5

Agave for tequila and biofuels: an economic assessment and potential opportunities: ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES OF AGAVE
journal, December 2010


Morphology of the Bagasse Fibers Obtained from the Elaboration Process of Mezcal and Effects on Their Tensile Properties
journal, October 2016

  • Cortés-Martínez, Carlos Inocencio; García-Méndez, Rey Fernando
  • Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1080/15440478.2016.1193089

Studies on mechanical properties of sisal fiber/phenol formaldehyde resin in-situ composites
journal, February 2009

  • Mu, Qiuhong; Wei, Chun; Feng, Shengyu
  • Polymer Composites, Vol. 30, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/pc.20529

Mechanical properties of sisal fiber reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of fiber content, interfacial compatibilization, and manufacturing process
journal, October 2014


Plant fibre based bio-composites: Sustainable and renewable green materials
journal, November 2017

  • Ramesh, M.; Palanikumar, K.; Reddy, K. Hemachandra
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 79
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.094

Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera
journal, January 2015


Pectins from Aloe Vera : Extraction and production of gels for regenerative medicine
journal, July 2013

  • Gentilini, Roberta; Bozzini, Sabrina; Munarin, Fabiola
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.39760

The prickly-pears (Opuntia spp., Cactaceae): A source of human and animal food in semiarid regions
journal, July 1987

  • Russell, Charles E.; Felker, Peter
  • Economic Botany, Vol. 41, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02859062

By-Products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber
journal, July 2010

  • Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G.
  • Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 65, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11130-010-0176-2

Performance of a biofilter system with agave fiber filter media for municipal wastewater treatment
journal, August 2013

  • Vigueras-Cortés, Juan Manuel; Villanueva-Fierro, Ignacio; Garzón-Zúñiga, Marco Antonio
  • Water Science and Technology, Vol. 68, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.285

Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants
journal, May 2015

  • Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A.
  • Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/s13068-015-0261-8

The grand challenge of cellulosic biofuels
journal, October 2017


Translation of CircRNAs
journal, April 2017


Response of Succulents to Fire: A review
journal, January 1991

  • Thomas, P. A.
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1071/WF9910011

Phytoremediation
journal, June 2005


Cactus Pear as Dryland Fodder: Ambovombe Farm, Madagascar and Wellwood Farm, South Africa Compared, c.1920-1950
journal, April 2005


Phytoextraction of gold and copper from mine tailings with Helianthus annuus L. and Kalanchoe serrata L.
journal, October 2011

  • Wilson-Corral, Victor; Anderson, Christopher; Rodriguez-Lopez, Mayra
  • Minerals Engineering, Vol. 24, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.mineng.2011.07.014

High proportion of cactus species threatened with extinction
journal, October 2015

  • Goettsch, Bárbara; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Cruz-Piñón, Gabriela
  • Nature Plants, Vol. 1, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2015.142

Works referencing / citing this record:

Comparative genomics can provide new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms and gene function in CAM plants
journal, September 2019

  • Yang, Xiaohan; Liu, Degao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 70, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erz408

CAM plasticity in epiphytic tropical orchid species responding to environmental stress
journal, May 2019


CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis for functional genomics research of crassulacean acid metabolism plants
journal, September 2019

  • Liu, Degao; Chen, Mei; Mendoza, Brian
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 70, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erz415

Undervalued potential of crassulacean acid metabolism for current and future agricultural production
journal, June 2019

  • Davis, Sarah C.; Simpson, June; Gil-Vega, Katia del Carmen
  • Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 70, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erz223

Figures / Tables found in this record:

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.