skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1463746
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Current Climate Change Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Current Climate Change Reports; Journal ID: ISSN 2198-6061
Publisher:
Springer Science + Business Media
Country of Publication:
Germany
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Byrne, Michael P., Pendergrass, Angeline G., Rapp, Anita D., and Wodzicki, Kyle R. Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength. Germany: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s40641-018-0110-5.
Byrne, Michael P., Pendergrass, Angeline G., Rapp, Anita D., & Wodzicki, Kyle R. Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength. Germany. doi:10.1007/s40641-018-0110-5.
Byrne, Michael P., Pendergrass, Angeline G., Rapp, Anita D., and Wodzicki, Kyle R. Thu . "Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength". Germany. doi:10.1007/s40641-018-0110-5.
@article{osti_1463746,
title = {Response of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to Climate Change: Location, Width, and Strength},
author = {Byrne, Michael P. and Pendergrass, Angeline G. and Rapp, Anita D. and Wodzicki, Kyle R.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1007/s40641-018-0110-5},
journal = {Current Climate Change Reports},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {Germany},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1007/s40641-018-0110-5

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 18 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Detecting cross‐equatorial wind change as a fingerprint of climate response to anthropogenic aerosol forcing
journal, April 2016

  • Wang, Hai; Xie, Shang‐Ping; Tokinaga, Hiroki
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068521

Seasonal and Interannual Variations of the Energy Flux Equator and ITCZ. Part I: Zonally Averaged ITCZ Position
journal, May 2016


A Proposal for the Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models
journal, October 1994


A Satellite-derived Climatology of the ITCZ
journal, November 1993


Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization
journal, January 2016

  • Eyring, Veronika; Bony, Sandrine; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-9-1937-2016

Precipitation Associated with Convergence Lines
journal, May 2017


Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol and the southward shift of tropical precipitation in the late 20th century: AEROSOLS AND TROPICAL RAIN BELT SHIFTS
journal, June 2013

  • Hwang, Yen-Ting; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Kang, Sarah M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50502

Trends in upper-level cloud cover and surface divergence over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean between 1952 and 1997
journal, January 2005


Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations
journal, January 2013

  • Shindell, D. T.; Lamarque, J. -F.; Schulz, M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-2939-2013

Variations in annual global precipitation (1979–2004), based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project 2.5° analysis
journal, January 2006

  • Smith, Thomas M.; Yin, Xungang; Gruber, Arnold
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL025393

The ocean’s role in setting the mean position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
journal, May 2013


A Simple Model of a Convectively Coupled Walker Circulation Using the Weak Temperature Gradient Approximation
journal, October 2002


Role of Changes in Mean Temperatures versus Temperature Gradients in the Recent Widening of the Hadley Circulation
journal, October 2014


An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design
journal, April 2012

  • Taylor, Karl E.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Meehl, Gerald A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1

Influence of high latitude ice cover on the marine Intertropical Convergence Zone
journal, July 2005


Cloud climatologies from the infrared sounders AIRS and IASI: strengths and applications
journal, January 2017

  • Stubenrauch, Claudia J.; Feofilov, Artem G.; Protopapadaki, Sofia E.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-13625-2017

Thermostats, Radiator Fins, and the Local Runaway Greenhouse
journal, May 1995


On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres
journal, July 1994

  • Emanuel, Kerry A.; David Neelin, J.; Bretherton, Christopher S.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 120, Issue 519
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49712051902

Time-Mean Response over the Tropical Pacific to Increased C0 2 in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model
journal, September 1995


Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification During 1950 to 2000
journal, April 2012


Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate
journal, December 2007

  • Seidel, Dian J.; Fu, Qiang; Randel, William J.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo.2007.38

Evidence for weakening of the Walker circulation from cloud observations
journal, September 2015

  • Bellomo, Katinka; Clement, Amy C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065463

Can energy fluxes be used to interpret glacial/interglacial precipitation changes in the tropics?: GLACIAL TROPICAL PRECIPITATION CHANGES
journal, June 2017

  • Roberts, W. H. G.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL073103

Response of the Hadley Circulation to Climate Change in an Aquaplanet GCM Coupled to a Simple Representation of Ocean Heat Transport
journal, April 2011

  • Levine, Xavier J.; Schneider, Tapio
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 68, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3553.1

Evaluating the “Rich-Get-Richer” Mechanism in Tropical Precipitation Change under Global Warming
journal, April 2009

  • Chou, Chia; Neelin, J. David; Chen, Chao-An
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2471.1

The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset
journal, January 1997


Contribution of ocean overturning circulation to tropical rainfall peak in the Northern Hemisphere
journal, October 2013

  • Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Hwang, Yen-Ting; Fučkar, Neven S.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1987

The Gap between Simulation and Understanding in Climate Modeling
journal, November 2005


Regional energy budget control of the intertropical convergence zone and application to mid-Holocene rainfall
journal, November 2016

  • Boos, William R.; Korty, Robert L.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2833

Thermodynamic and Dynamic Mechanisms for Large-Scale Changes in the Hydrological Cycle in Response to Global Warming
journal, September 2010

  • Seager, Richard; Naik, Naomi; Vecchi, Gabriel A.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3655.1

Idealized Simulations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Its Multilevel Flows
journal, December 2010

  • Nolan, David S.; Powell, Scott W.; Zhang, Chidong
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 67, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3417.1

The Relationship between ITCZ Location and Cross-Equatorial Atmospheric Heat Transport: From the Seasonal Cycle to the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, June 2013


Global Warming and the Weakening of the Tropical Circulation
journal, September 2007

  • Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Soden, Brian J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4258.1

Improving Energy-Based Estimates of Monsoon Location in the Presence of Proximal Deserts
journal, July 2016


The Dependence of ITCZ Structure on Model Resolution and Dynamical Core in Aquaplanet Simulations
journal, March 2014


Eddy-Driven Jet Sensitivity to Diabatic Heating in an Idealized GCM
journal, August 2017


The Interannual Variability of Tropical Precipitation and Interhemispheric Energy Transport
journal, May 2014


Tropical Biases in CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble: The Excessive Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue and Double ITCZ Problems
journal, February 2014


The Tropical Response to Extratropical Thermal Forcing in an Idealized GCM: The Importance of Radiative Feedbacks and Convective Parameterization
journal, September 2009

  • Kang, Sarah M.; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Held, Isaac M.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 66, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JAS2924.1

Long-term characterization of the Pacific ITCZ using TRMM, GPCP, and ERA-Interim: PACIFIC ITCZ CHARACTERIZATION
journal, April 2016

  • Wodzicki, K. R.; Rapp, A. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024458

A Mechanism for the Response of the Zonally Asymmetric Subtropical Hydrologic Cycle to Global Warming
journal, November 2016


Near-Surface Salinity as Nature’s Rain Gauge to Detect Human Influence on the Tropical Water Cycle
journal, February 2012


Fifty-Year Trends in Global Ocean Salinities and Their Relationship to Broad-Scale Warming
journal, August 2010


A Model Investigation of Aerosol-Induced Changes in Tropical Circulation
journal, October 2011


Why the ITCZ Is Mostly North of the Equator
journal, December 1996


The Response of the ITCZ to Extratropical Thermal Forcing: Idealized Slab-Ocean Experiments with a GCM
journal, July 2008

  • Kang, Sarah M.; Held, Isaac M.; Frierson, Dargan M. W.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI2146.1

On Thermally Direct Circulations in Moist Atmospheres
journal, May 1995


Analysis of Atmospheric Energy Transport in ERA-40 and Implications for Simple Models of the Mean Tropical Circulation
journal, October 2008

  • Peters, Matthew E.; Kuang, Zhiming; Walker, Christopher C.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2073.1

Challenges and opportunities for improved understanding of regional climate dynamics
journal, January 2018

  • Collins, Matthew; Minobe, Shoshiro; Barreiro, Marcelo
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41558-017-0059-8

Global Climate Impacts of Fixing the Southern Ocean Shortwave Radiation Bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)
journal, June 2016


Changes in ITCZ location and cross-equatorial heat transport at the Last Glacial Maximum, Heinrich Stadial 1, and the mid-Holocene
journal, March 2014


Spatial Patterns of Precipitation Change in CMIP5: Why the Rich Do Not Get Richer in the Tropics
journal, June 2013


Monsoons as eddy-mediated regime transitions of the tropical overturning circulation
journal, July 2008

  • Bordoni, Simona; Schneider, Tapio
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo248

Direct weakening of tropical circulations from masked CO 2 radiative forcing
journal, October 2015

  • Merlis, Timothy M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1508268112

Land/sea warming ratio in response to climate change: IPCC AR4 model results and comparison with observations
journal, January 2007

  • Sutton, Rowan T.; Dong, Buwen; Gregory, Jonathan M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028164

The Double-ITCZ Problem in IPCC AR4 Coupled GCMs: Ocean–Atmosphere Feedback Analysis
journal, September 2007


Rapid Changes in the Hydrologic Cycle of the Tropical Atlantic During the Last Glacial
journal, December 2000


Hadley Circulations for Zonally Averaged Heating Centered off the Equator
journal, September 1988


Coupling of Trade Winds with Ocean Circulation Damps ITCZ Shifts
journal, June 2017


Energetic Constraints on the Position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
journal, July 2014


Deconstructing the Hadley cell heat transport: Deconstructing the Hadley Cell Heat Transport
journal, December 2012

  • Heaviside, C.; Czaja, A.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 139, Issue 677
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.2085

Response of the ITCZ to Northern Hemisphere cooling: ITCZ RESPONSE TO N. HEMISPHERE COOLING
journal, January 2006

  • Broccoli, Anthony J.; Dahl, Kristina A.; Stouffer, Ronald J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024546

Southward Migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone Through the Holocene
journal, August 2001


Drivers of the Recent Tropical Expansion in the Southern Hemisphere: Changing SSTs or Ozone Depletion?
journal, August 2015

  • Waugh, Darryn W.; Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0138.1

Increases in tropical rainfall driven by changes in frequency of organized deep convection
journal, March 2015

  • Tan, Jackson; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B.
  • Nature, Vol. 519, Issue 7544
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14339

ITCZ structure as determined by parameterized versus explicit convection in aquachannel and aquapatch simulations
journal, March 2016

  • Nolan, David S.; Tulich, Stefan N.; Blanco, Joaquin E.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015MS000560

Energetic Constraints on the Width of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
journal, July 2016


Extratropical forcing and tropical rainfall distribution: energetics framework and ocean Ekman advection
journal, January 2018

  • Kang, Sarah M.; Shin, Yechul; Xie, Shang-Ping
  • npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41612-017-0004-6

Interhemispheric Temperature Asymmetry over the Twentieth Century and in Future Projections
journal, August 2013

  • Friedman, Andrew R.; Hwang, Yen-Ting; Chiang, John C. H.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 26, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00525.1

Clouds and the Atmospheric Circulation Response to Warming
journal, January 2016


Tropical drought regions in global warming and El Niño teleconnections: TROPICAL DROUGHT IN GLOBAL WARMING AND ENSO
journal, December 2003

  • Neelin, J. D.; Chou, C.; Su, H.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GL018625

Similar spatial patterns of climate responses to aerosol and greenhouse gas changes
journal, September 2013

  • Xie, Shang-Ping; Lu, Bo; Xiang, Baoqiang
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1931

Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Weakening of the South Asian Summer Monsoon
journal, September 2011


Scaling of Precipitation Extremes over a Wide Range of Climates Simulated with an Idealized GCM
journal, November 2009


Mechanisms of Forced Tropical Meridional Energy Flux Change
journal, March 2015


Extratropical Cooling, Interhemispheric Thermal Gradients, and Tropical Climate Change
journal, May 2012


Tropical Rainfall Trends and the Indirect Aerosol Effect
journal, August 2002


Detecting the ITCZ in Instantaneous Satellite Data using Spatiotemporal Statistical Modeling: ITCZ Climatology in the East Pacific
journal, January 2011

  • Bain, Caroline L.; De Paz, Jorge; Kramer, Jason
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3716.1

Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970
journal, January 2007

  • Delcroix, Thierry; Cravatte, Sophie; McPhaden, Michael J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue C3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JC003801

Observational Evaluation of a Convective Quasi-Equilibrium View of Monsoons
journal, August 2010


Circulation response to warming shaped by radiative changes of clouds and water vapour
journal, January 2015

  • Voigt, Aiko; Shaw, Tiffany A.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2345

Modulations of the Phase Speed of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves by the ITCZ
journal, July 2011

  • Dias, Juliana; Pauluis, Olivier
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 68, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JAS3630.1

Southern Ocean albedo, inter-hemispheric energy transports and the double ITCZ: global impacts of biases in a coupled model
journal, June 2016


The Role of Cloud Radiative Heating in Determining the Location of the ITCZ in Aquaplanet Simulations
journal, April 2016


Observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation since 1979
journal, January 2007


Seasonal and Interannual Variations of the Energy Flux Equator and ITCZ. Part II: Zonally Varying Shifts of the ITCZ
journal, October 2016


Evidence for climate change in the satellite cloud record
journal, July 2016

  • Norris, Joel R.; Allen, Robert J.; Evan, Amato T.
  • Nature, Vol. 536, Issue 7614
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature18273

Tightening of tropical ascent and high clouds key to precipitation change in a warmer climate
journal, June 2017

  • Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Neelin, J. David
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15771

Seasonal Sensitivity of the Hadley Cell and Cross‐Hemispheric Responses to Diabatic Heating in an Idealized GCM
journal, March 2018

  • Baker, Hugh S.; Mbengue, Cheikh; Woollings, Tim
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2018GL077013

The Linear Response Function of an Idealized Atmosphere. Part I: Construction Using Green’s Functions and Applications
journal, September 2016

  • Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Kuang, Zhiming
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 73, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0338.1

Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount
journal, July 2016

  • Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Coppin, David
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1601472113

Monsoon Dynamics with Interactive Forcing. Part I: Axisymmetric Studies
journal, May 2007

  • Privé, Nikki C.; Plumb, R. Alan
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 64, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3916.1

The relationship between the ITCZ and the Southern Hemispheric eddy-driven jet: ITCZ AND JET LATITUDE
journal, June 2013

  • Ceppi, Paulo; Hwang, Yen-Ting; Liu, Xiaojuan
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50461

The Dynamics of Idealized Convection Schemes and Their Effect on the Zonally Averaged Tropical Circulation
journal, June 2007

  • Frierson, Dargan M. W.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 64, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3935.1

Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming
journal, November 2006

  • Held, Isaac M.; Soden, Brian J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1

The Partitioning of the Poleward Energy Transport between the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere
journal, April 2001


Fluctuations in the Position of the ITCZ in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
journal, January 1972


The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

Global Warming Pattern Formation: Sea Surface Temperature and Rainfall
journal, February 2010

  • Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI3329.1

The Rain Is Askew: Two Idealized Models Relating Vertical Velocity and Precipitation Distributions in a Warming World
journal, September 2016


A perspective on climate model hierarchies: MODEL HIERARCHIES
journal, August 2017

  • Jeevanjee, Nadir; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Hill, Spencer
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001038

The boundary layer contribution to intertropical convergence zones in the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model framework
journal, September 2006

  • Sobel, Adam H.; Neelin, J. David.
  • Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 20, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00162-006-0033-y

Atmospheric Dynamics Feedback: Concept, Simulations, and Climate Implications
journal, April 2018


Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation*
journal, July 2004


Feedback of Atmosphere‐Ocean Coupling on Shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
journal, November 2017


Rediscovery of the doldrums in storm-resolving simulations over the tropical Atlantic
journal, November 2017


Baroclinic Eddies and the Extent of the Hadley Circulation: An Idealized GCM Study
journal, July 2015

  • Levine, Xavier J.; Schneider, Tapio
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 72, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-14-0152.1

Southward movement of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone AD 1400–1850
journal, June 2009

  • Sachs, Julian P.; Sachse, Dirk; Smittenberg, Rienk H.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo554

The Response of a Zonally Symmetric Atmosphere to Subtropical Thermal Forcing: Threshold Behavior
journal, October 1992


Links between tropical rainfall and North Atlantic climate during the last glacial period
journal, February 2013

  • Deplazes, Gaudenz; Lückge, Andreas; Peterson, Larry C.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1712

Thermodynamic Scaling of the Hydrological Cycle of the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, February 2012


Understanding Decreases in Land Relative Humidity with Global Warming: Conceptual Model and GCM Simulations
journal, December 2016


Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation
journal, April 2013

  • Bony, Sandrine; Bellon, Gilles; Klocke, Daniel
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1799

Rethinking Tropical Ocean Response to Global Warming: The Enhanced Equatorial Warming
journal, November 2005

  • Liu, Zhengyu; Vavrus, Steve; He, Feng
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 18, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3579.1

Hemispherically asymmetric trade wind changes as signatures of past ITCZ shifts
journal, January 2018


Objective Identification of the Intertropical Convergence Zone: Climatology and Trends from the ERA-Interim
journal, March 2014


Relationships between global precipitation and surface temperature on interannual and longer timescales (1979–2006)
journal, January 2008

  • Adler, Robert F.; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Jian-Jian
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue D22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD010536

Holocene ITCZ and Indian monsoon dynamics recorded in stalagmites from Oman and Yemen (Socotra)
journal, January 2007


Long-term changes/trends in surface temperature and precipitation during the satellite era (1979–2012)
journal, May 2015


Salinity changes in the World Ocean since 1950 in relation to changing surface freshwater fluxes
journal, April 2014


Migrations and dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone
journal, September 2014

  • Schneider, Tapio; Bischoff, Tobias; Haug, Gerald H.
  • Nature, Vol. 513, Issue 7516
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13636

Modeling Tropical Convergence Based on the Moist Static Energy Budget
journal, January 1987


Connecting tropical climate change with Southern Ocean heat uptake: Tropical Climate Change and SO Heat Uptake
journal, September 2017

  • Hwang, Yen-Ting; Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074972

Global sulfur emissions from 1850 to 2000
journal, January 2005


Detecting trends in tropical rainfall characteristics, 1979–2003
journal, January 2007

  • Lau, K. -M.; Wu, H. -T.
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 27, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.1454

Mechanisms of Asian Summer Monsoon Changes in Response to Anthropogenic Forcing in CMIP5 Models
journal, May 2015


Uncertainty in Tropical Rainfall Projections: Atmospheric Circulation Effect and the Ocean Coupling
journal, April 2016