skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Observational constraint on cloud susceptibility weakened by aerosol retrieval limitations

Abstract

Aerosol-cloud interactions remain a major uncertainty in climate research. Studies have indicated that model estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols frequently exceed satellite estimates, motivating model reformulations to increase agreement. Here we show that conventional ways of using satellite information to estimate susceptibility can serve as only a weak constraint on models because the estimation is sensitive to errors in the retrieval procedures. Using instrument simulators to investigate differences between model and satellite estimates of susceptibilities, we find that low aerosol loading conditions are not well characterized by satellites, but model clouds are sensitive to aerosol perturbations in these conditions. We quantify the observational requirements needed to constrain models, and find that the nighttime lidar measurements of aerosols provide a better characterization of tenuous aerosols. Here, we conclude that observational uncertainties and limitations need to be accounted for when assessing the role of aerosols in the climate system.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
  3. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1463346
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1513205
Report Number(s):
[PNNL-SA-118058]
[Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; PII: 5028]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-76RL01830]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Ma, Po -Lun, Rasch, Philip J., Chepfer, Helene, Winker, David M., and Ghan, Steven J. Observational constraint on cloud susceptibility weakened by aerosol retrieval limitations. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/S41467-018-05028-4.
Ma, Po -Lun, Rasch, Philip J., Chepfer, Helene, Winker, David M., & Ghan, Steven J. Observational constraint on cloud susceptibility weakened by aerosol retrieval limitations. United States. doi:10.1038/S41467-018-05028-4.
Ma, Po -Lun, Rasch, Philip J., Chepfer, Helene, Winker, David M., and Ghan, Steven J. Fri . "Observational constraint on cloud susceptibility weakened by aerosol retrieval limitations". United States. doi:10.1038/S41467-018-05028-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1463346.
@article{osti_1463346,
title = {Observational constraint on cloud susceptibility weakened by aerosol retrieval limitations},
author = {Ma, Po -Lun and Rasch, Philip J. and Chepfer, Helene and Winker, David M. and Ghan, Steven J.},
abstractNote = {Aerosol-cloud interactions remain a major uncertainty in climate research. Studies have indicated that model estimates of cloud susceptibility to aerosols frequently exceed satellite estimates, motivating model reformulations to increase agreement. Here we show that conventional ways of using satellite information to estimate susceptibility can serve as only a weak constraint on models because the estimation is sensitive to errors in the retrieval procedures. Using instrument simulators to investigate differences between model and satellite estimates of susceptibilities, we find that low aerosol loading conditions are not well characterized by satellites, but model clouds are sensitive to aerosol perturbations in these conditions. We quantify the observational requirements needed to constrain models, and find that the nighttime lidar measurements of aerosols provide a better characterization of tenuous aerosols. Here, we conclude that observational uncertainties and limitations need to be accounted for when assessing the role of aerosols in the climate system.},
doi = {10.1038/S41467-018-05028-4},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = [1],
volume = [9],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1 : Global mean susceptibility of cloud droplet size, susceptibility of precipitation probability, and effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Estimates of SRe = −∂ln(Re)/∂ln(CCN)18, SPOP=−∂ln(POP)/ ∂ln(CCN)6, and the inferred ERFaci are derived from satellite retrievals and CAM5 model simulation when accounting for sampling and retrieval limitations. Observationalmore » estimates are derived from satellite-retrieved data products at the 20 km footprints of the Cloud and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) from CERES-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (C3M) 70, 71. Model estimates are derived from conventional sampling of model fields (CAM5_clim) and incrementally accounting for orbital sampling (CAM5_orb), cloud clearing (CAM5_cld), aerosol detection threshold (CAM5_det), aerosol extinction retrieval (CAM5_aer), and cloud retrieval uncertainties using CALIPSO, CloudSat, and MODIS cloud simulators (CAM5_sim). Vertical and horizontal bars represent the range of SRe and SPOP for a range of LWP from 20 to 200 gm−2. Blue shaded background represents ERFaci estimates as a function of SRe and SPOP derived from a series of CAM5 sensitivity simulations6. See Methods for details« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The impact of spatial sampling
journal, January 2016

  • Schutgens, Nick A. J.; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Weigum, Natalie
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-6335-2016

How does increasing horizontal resolution in a global climate model improve the simulation of aerosol-cloud interactions?: RESOLUTION DEPENDENCE OF AIF
journal, June 2015

  • Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL064183

MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds
journal, January 2009

  • Várnai, Tamás; Marshak, Alexander
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL037089

Use of the CALIOP vertical feature mask for evaluating global aerosol models
journal, January 2015

  • Nowottnick, E. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Welton, E. J.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-8-3647-2015

Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals
journal, January 2010


Rainfall-aerosol relationships explained by wet scavenging and humidity
journal, August 2014

  • Grandey, Benjamin S.; Gururaj, Anisha; Stier, Philip
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060958

Droplet nucleation: Physically-based parameterizations and comparative evaluation: DROPLET NUCLEATION
journal, April 2011

  • Ghan, Steven J.; Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Nenes, Athanasios
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011MS000074

Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing
journal, November 2013

  • Carslaw, K. S.; Lee, L. A.; Reddington, C. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 503, Issue 7474
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12674

MYD08_M3 MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG
null, January 2014


The global 3-D distribution of tropospheric aerosols as characterized by CALIOP
journal, January 2013

  • Winker, D. M.; Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3345-2013

Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing: SATELLITE-ESTIMATE OF AEROSOL FORCINGS
journal, March 2008

  • Quaas, Johannes; Boucher, Olivier; Bellouin, Nicolas
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 113, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JD008962

SeaWiFS Ocean Aerosol Retrieval (SOAR): Algorithm, validation, and comparison with other data sets: SEAWIFS OCEAN AEROSOL RETRIEVAL
journal, February 2012

  • Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016599

Use of CALIPSO lidar observations to evaluate the cloudiness simulated by a climate model
journal, January 2008

  • Chepfer, H.; Bony, S.; Winker, D.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL034207

Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability
journal, February 2016

  • Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514036113

Occurrence of pristine aerosol environments on a polluted planet
journal, December 2014

  • Hamilton, Douglas S.; Lee, Lindsay A.; Pringle, Kirsty J.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415440111

The role of circulation features on black carbon transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5): BC TRANSPORT IN OFF-LINE CAM5
journal, May 2013

  • Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50411

A critical look at spatial scale choices in satellite-based aerosol indirect effect studies
journal, January 2010


Wet scavenging limits the detection of aerosol effects on precipitation
journal, January 2015

  • Gryspeerdt, E.; Stier, P.; White, B. A.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-7557-2015

Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness
journal, September 1989


Validation and Sensitivities of Frontal Clouds Simulated by the ECMWF Model
journal, October 1999


A comparison of simulated cloud radar output from the multiscale modeling framework global climate model with CloudSat cloud radar observations
journal, January 2009

  • Marchand, Roger; Haynes, John; Mace, Gerald G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009790

SeaWiFS Deep Blue Aerosol Optical Depth and Angstrom Exponent Monthly Level 3 Data Gridded at 1.0 Degree V4.0
dataset, January 2013


The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm
journal, October 2009

  • Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 26, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JTECHA1231.1

Limitations of passive remote sensing to constrain global cloud condensation nuclei
journal, January 2016


GCM Simulations of the Aerosol Indirect Effect: Sensitivity to Cloud Parameterization and Aerosol Burden
journal, February 2002


Improvements of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance computations with CALIPSO-, CloudSat-, and MODIS-derived cloud and aerosol properties
journal, January 2011

  • Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Sun-Mack, Sunny
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue D19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016050

Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application
journal, January 2010

  • Lamarque, J. -F.; Bond, T. C.; Eyring, V.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010

Evaluating cloud tuning in a climate model with satellite observations: EVALUATION OF CLOUD TUNING
journal, August 2013

  • Suzuki, Kentaroh; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Stephens, Graeme L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50874

A New Cloud Physics Parameterization in a Large-Eddy Simulation Model of Marine Stratocumulus
journal, January 2000


The MODIS Aerosol Algorithm, Products, and Validation
journal, April 2005

  • Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanré, D.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 62, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS3385.1

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

A possible correlation between satellite-derived cloud and aerosol microphysical parameters
journal, April 2001

  • Nakajima, Teruyuki; Higurashi, Akiko; Kawamoto, Kazuaki
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GL012186

The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects
journal, January 2012


Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations: CONSTRAINING CLOUD LIFETIME EFFECTS
journal, August 2012

  • Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven; Liu, Xiaohong
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL052204

Some implications of sampling choices on comparisons between satellite and model aerosol optical depth fields
journal, January 2010

  • Sayer, A. M.; Thomas, G. E.; Palmer, P. I.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-10705-2010

Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements
journal, October 2009

  • Vaughan, Mark A.; Powell, Kathleen A.; Winker, David M.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 26, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JTECHA1228.1

Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview
journal, July 1998

  • Diner, D. J.; Beckert, J. C.; Reilly, T. H.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/36.700992

The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean
journal, January 2013

  • Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-6-2989-2013

The Influence of Pollution on the Shortwave Albedo of Clouds
journal, July 1977


CERES Level 2 NEWS CCCM Aqua-FM3-MODIS-CAL-CS HDF File - Release B1
dataset, January 2008


The GCM-Oriented CALIPSO Cloud Product (CALIPSO-GOCCP)
journal, January 2010

  • Chepfer, H.; Bony, S.; Winker, D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD012251

Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms
journal, November 2009

  • Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Omar, Ali
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 26, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JTECHA1281.1

CALIPSO LID_L3_APro_CloudFree-Standard-V3-00HDF File - Version 3.00
null, January 2015


Twentieth century climate model response and climate sensitivity
journal, January 2007


The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation
journal, August 2015

  • Illingworth, A. J.; Barker, H. W.; Beljaars, A.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00227.1

Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo
journal, April 2017

  • Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617765114

Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models
journal, January 2008

  • Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue D13
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009944

Lidar signal simulation for the evaluation of aerosols in chemistry transport models
journal, January 2012

  • Stromatas, S.; Turquety, S.; Menut, L.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-1543-2012

Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers
journal, March 2016

  • Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zheng, Youtong; Hashimshoni, Eyal
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514044113

Aerosol Effect on Cloud Droplet Size Monitored from Satellite
journal, February 2002


Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data
journal, January 2009


Reconciling Simulated and Observed Views of Clouds: MODIS, ISCCP, and the Limits of Instrument Simulators
journal, July 2012


Strong constraints on aerosol–cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions
journal, June 2017

  • Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy
  • Nature, Vol. 546, Issue 7659
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature22974

A simple model for the cloud adjacency effect and the apparent bluing of aerosols near clouds
journal, January 2008

  • Marshak, Alexander; Wen, Guoyong; Coakley, James A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue D14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JD009196

Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols
journal, August 2011

  • Penner, J. E.; Xu, L.; Wang, M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue 33
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018526108

Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data
journal, January 2014

  • Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-7-4317-2014

Comparison of aerosol chemistry transport model simulations with lidar and Sun photometer observations at a site near Paris: CHIMERE EVALUATION WITH OPTICAL DATA
journal, December 2004

  • Hodzic, A.; Chepfer, H.; Vautard, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 109, Issue D23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004735

Stronger Constraints on the Anthropogenic Indirect Aerosol Effect
journal, November 2002


A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types
journal, March 2000

  • Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Ghan, Steven J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 105, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JD901161

Global and regional evaluation of over-land spectral aerosol optical depth retrievals from SeaWiFS
journal, January 2012

  • Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-5-1761-2012

Improving our fundamental understanding of the role of aerosol−cloud interactions in the climate system
journal, May 2016

  • Seinfeld, John H.; Bretherton, Christopher; Carslaw, Kenneth S.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514043113

First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors: SURFACE REMOTE SENSING OF THE INDIRECT EFFECT
journal, March 2003

  • Feingold, Graham; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Veron, Dana E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL016633

Unveiling aerosol–cloud interactions – Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate
journal, January 2017

  • Christensen, Matthew W.; Neubauer, David; Poulsen, Caroline A.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-13151-2017

Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol–climate model intercomparison studies
journal, January 2014


COSP: Satellite simulation software for model assessment
journal, August 2011

  • Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Webb, M. J.; Bony, S.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 92, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011BAMS2856.1

Autoxidation as a major player in the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter in seawater: ESTUARINE AUTOXIDATION OF TPOM
journal, May 2017

  • Galeron, Marie-Aimée; Radakovitch, Olivier; Charrière, Bruno
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 122, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JG003708

Constraining the influence of natural variability to improve estimates of global aerosol indirect effects in a nudged version of the Community Atmosphere Model 5: ESTIMATES OF AEROSOL INDIRECT EFFECTS
journal, December 2012

  • Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Ghan, Steven J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JD018588

Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of Community Atmosphere Model version 3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data
journal, January 2010

  • Zhang, Y.; Klein, S. A.; Boyle, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue D12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JD012006

Comparing continental and oceanic cloud susceptibilities to aerosols: CLOUD SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AEROSOLS
journal, August 2003

  • Lohmann, Ulrike; Lesins, Glen
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017828

CALIPSO‐inferred aerosol direct radiative effects: Bias estimates using ground‐based Raman lidars
journal, December 2015

  • Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024095

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    CERES Level 2 NEWS CCCM Aqua-FM3-MODIS-CAL-CS HDF File - Release B1
    dataset, January 2008


    Evaluating cloud tuning in a climate model with satellite observations: EVALUATION OF CLOUD TUNING
    journal, August 2013

    • Suzuki, Kentaroh; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Stephens, Graeme L.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50874

    The role of circulation features on black carbon transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5): BC TRANSPORT IN OFF-LINE CAM5
    journal, May 2013

    • Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 118, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50411

    The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
    journal, April 2011

    • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

    Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing
    journal, November 2013

    • Carslaw, K. S.; Lee, L. A.; Reddington, C. L.
    • Nature, Vol. 503, Issue 7474
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12674

    Strong constraints on aerosol–cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions
    journal, June 2017

    • Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy
    • Nature, Vol. 546, Issue 7659
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature22974

    Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols
    journal, August 2011

    • Penner, J. E.; Xu, L.; Wang, M.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018526108

    Occurrence of pristine aerosol environments on a polluted planet
    journal, December 2014

    • Hamilton, Douglas S.; Lee, Lindsay A.; Pringle, Kirsty J.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1415440111

    Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability
    journal, February 2016

    • Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514036113

    Improving our fundamental understanding of the role of aerosol−cloud interactions in the climate system
    journal, May 2016

    • Seinfeld, John H.; Bretherton, Christopher; Carslaw, Kenneth S.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514043113

    Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers
    journal, March 2016

    • Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zheng, Youtong; Hashimshoni, Eyal
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514044113

    Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo
    journal, April 2017

    • Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617765114

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview
    journal, July 1998

    • Diner, D. J.; Beckert, J. C.; Reilly, T. H.
    • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1109/36.700992

    Aerosol Effect on Cloud Droplet Size Monitored from Satellite
    journal, February 2002


    Stronger Constraints on the Anthropogenic Indirect Aerosol Effect
    journal, November 2002


    Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness
    journal, September 1989


    Some implications of sampling choices on comparisons between satellite and model aerosol optical depth fields
    journal, January 2010

    • Sayer, A. M.; Thomas, G. E.; Palmer, P. I.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-10705-2010

    A critical look at spatial scale choices in satellite-based aerosol indirect effect studies
    journal, January 2010


    Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application
    journal, January 2010

    • Lamarque, J. -F.; Bond, T. C.; Eyring, V.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010

    Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals
    journal, January 2010


    The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects
    journal, January 2012


    The global 3-D distribution of tropospheric aerosols as characterized by CALIOP
    journal, January 2013

    • Winker, D. M.; Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-3345-2013

    Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol–climate model intercomparison studies
    journal, January 2014


    Wet scavenging limits the detection of aerosol effects on precipitation
    journal, January 2015

    • Gryspeerdt, E.; Stier, P.; White, B. A.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-7557-2015

    Will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The impact of spatial sampling
    journal, January 2016

    • Schutgens, Nick A. J.; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Weigum, Natalie
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 16, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-16-6335-2016

    Limitations of passive remote sensing to constrain global cloud condensation nuclei
    journal, January 2016


    Unveiling aerosol–cloud interactions – Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate
    journal, January 2017

    • Christensen, Matthew W.; Neubauer, David; Poulsen, Caroline A.
    • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-13151-2017

    Aerosol indirect effects – general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data
    journal, January 2009


    Global and regional evaluation of over-land spectral aerosol optical depth retrievals from SeaWiFS
    journal, January 2012

    • Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 5, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-5-1761-2012

    The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean
    journal, January 2013

    • Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 6, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-6-2989-2013

    Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data
    journal, January 2014

    • Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 7, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-7-4317-2014

    Use of the CALIOP vertical feature mask for evaluating global aerosol models
    journal, January 2015

    • Nowottnick, E. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Welton, E. J.
    • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 8, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.5194/amt-8-3647-2015

    Lidar signal simulation for the evaluation of aerosols in chemistry transport models
    journal, January 2012

    • Stromatas, S.; Turquety, S.; Menut, L.
    • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 5, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-5-1543-2012

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.