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Title: Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo–electron microscopy

Whereas standard transmission electron microscopy studies are unable to preserve the native state of chemically reactive and beam-sensitive battery materials after operation, such materials remain pristine at cryogenic conditions. It is then possible to atomically resolve individual lithium metal atoms and their interface with the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). We observe that dendrites in carbonate-based electrolytes grow along the < 111 > (preferred), < 110 >, or < 211 > directions as faceted, single-crystalline nanowires. These growth directions can change at kinks with no observable crystallographic defect. As a result, we reveal distinct SEI nanostructures formed in different electrolytes.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)
  3. ShanghaiTech Univ., Shanghai (China)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Univ. Siegen, Siegen (Germany)
  5. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)
  6. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 358; Journal Issue: 6362; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1463306

Li, Yuzhang, Li, Yanbin, Pei, Allen, Yan, Kai, Sun, Yongming, Wu, Chun -Lan, Joubert, Lydia -Marie, Chin, Richard, Koh, Ai Leen, Yu, Yi, Perrino, John, Butz, Benjamin, Chu, Steven, and Cui, Yi. Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo–electron microscopy. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1126/science.aam6014.
Li, Yuzhang, Li, Yanbin, Pei, Allen, Yan, Kai, Sun, Yongming, Wu, Chun -Lan, Joubert, Lydia -Marie, Chin, Richard, Koh, Ai Leen, Yu, Yi, Perrino, John, Butz, Benjamin, Chu, Steven, & Cui, Yi. Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo–electron microscopy. United States. doi:10.1126/science.aam6014.
Li, Yuzhang, Li, Yanbin, Pei, Allen, Yan, Kai, Sun, Yongming, Wu, Chun -Lan, Joubert, Lydia -Marie, Chin, Richard, Koh, Ai Leen, Yu, Yi, Perrino, John, Butz, Benjamin, Chu, Steven, and Cui, Yi. 2017. "Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo–electron microscopy". United States. doi:10.1126/science.aam6014. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1463306.
@article{osti_1463306,
title = {Atomic structure of sensitive battery materials and interfaces revealed by cryo–electron microscopy},
author = {Li, Yuzhang and Li, Yanbin and Pei, Allen and Yan, Kai and Sun, Yongming and Wu, Chun -Lan and Joubert, Lydia -Marie and Chin, Richard and Koh, Ai Leen and Yu, Yi and Perrino, John and Butz, Benjamin and Chu, Steven and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Whereas standard transmission electron microscopy studies are unable to preserve the native state of chemically reactive and beam-sensitive battery materials after operation, such materials remain pristine at cryogenic conditions. It is then possible to atomically resolve individual lithium metal atoms and their interface with the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). We observe that dendrites in carbonate-based electrolytes grow along the < 111 > (preferred), < 110 >, or < 211 > directions as faceted, single-crystalline nanowires. These growth directions can change at kinks with no observable crystallographic defect. As a result, we reveal distinct SEI nanostructures formed in different electrolytes.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aam6014},
journal = {Science},
number = 6362,
volume = 358,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Conversion of Zinc Oxide Nanobelts into Superlattice-Structured Nanohelices
journal, September 2005

In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode
journal, December 2010

Nonaqueous Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries
journal, October 2004