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Title: Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force

Abstract

Here in this paper, hydraulic jump control using electromagnetic force in a liquid metal flow is presented. The control methods used give insight into the hydraulic jump behavior in the presence of magnetic fields and electrical currents. Flowing liquid metals is a proposed solution to heat flux challenges posed in fusion reactors, specifically the tokamak. Unfortunately, thin, fast-flowing liquid metal divertor concepts for fusion reactors are susceptible to hydraulic jumps that drastically reduce the liquid metal flow speed, leading to potential problems such as excessive evaporation, unsteady power removal, and possible plasma disruption. Highly electrically conductive flows within the magnetic fields do not exhibit traditional hydraulic jump behavior. There is very little research investigating the use of externally injected electrical currents and magnetic fields to control liquid metal hydraulic jumps. By using externally injected electrical currents and a magnetic field, a Lorentz force (also referred to as j × B force) may be generated to control the liquid metal jump behavior. In this work, a free-surface liquid metal—GaInSn eutectic or “galinstan”$-$flow through an electrically insulating rectangular duct was investigated. It was shown that applying a Lorentz force has a repeatable and predictable impact on the hydraulic jump, which can bemore » used for liquid metal control within next-generation fusion reactors.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1463295
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1457490
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Fluids
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-6631
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Fisher, A. E., Kolemen, E., and Hvasta, M. G. Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5026993.
Fisher, A. E., Kolemen, E., & Hvasta, M. G. Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5026993
Fisher, A. E., Kolemen, E., and Hvasta, M. G. Wed . "Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5026993. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1463295.
@article{osti_1463295,
title = {Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force},
author = {Fisher, A. E. and Kolemen, E. and Hvasta, M. G.},
abstractNote = {Here in this paper, hydraulic jump control using electromagnetic force in a liquid metal flow is presented. The control methods used give insight into the hydraulic jump behavior in the presence of magnetic fields and electrical currents. Flowing liquid metals is a proposed solution to heat flux challenges posed in fusion reactors, specifically the tokamak. Unfortunately, thin, fast-flowing liquid metal divertor concepts for fusion reactors are susceptible to hydraulic jumps that drastically reduce the liquid metal flow speed, leading to potential problems such as excessive evaporation, unsteady power removal, and possible plasma disruption. Highly electrically conductive flows within the magnetic fields do not exhibit traditional hydraulic jump behavior. There is very little research investigating the use of externally injected electrical currents and magnetic fields to control liquid metal hydraulic jumps. By using externally injected electrical currents and a magnetic field, a Lorentz force (also referred to as j × B force) may be generated to control the liquid metal jump behavior. In this work, a free-surface liquid metal—GaInSn eutectic or “galinstan”$-$flow through an electrically insulating rectangular duct was investigated. It was shown that applying a Lorentz force has a repeatable and predictable impact on the hydraulic jump, which can be used for liquid metal control within next-generation fusion reactors.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5026993},
journal = {Physics of Fluids},
number = 6,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 3 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Application of IR imaging for free-surface velocity measurement in liquid-metal systems
journal, January 2017

  • Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 1
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Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility
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Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors
journal, November 2017


Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy configurations
journal, April 1997


Hydraulic Jump
journal, September 2011


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A fusion reactor design with a liquid first wall and divertor
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On the exploration of innovative concepts for fusion chamber technology
journal, February 2001


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journal, April 2005

  • Narula, M.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. A.
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  • DOI: 10.13182/fst05-a745

The MTOR LM-MHD Flow Facility, and Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Thin Layer, Liquid Metal Flow in a 1/R Toroidal Magnetic Field
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Study of small-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic surface waves on liquid metal
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Flow of Fluids in Conduits and open Channels.
journal, July 1956


Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force
dataset, January 2018

  • Fisher, Adam; Kolemen, Egemen; Hvasta, Mike
  • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  • DOI: 10.11578/1562013

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility
    journal, November 2004


    A fusion reactor design with a liquid first wall and divertor
    journal, November 2004


    Electromagnetic braking of the flow of a liquid metal with a free surface
    journal, July 1998


    On the exploration of innovative concepts for fusion chamber technology
    journal, February 2001


    Hydraulic jumps, flow separation and wave breaking: An experimental study
    journal, October 1996


    Effects of magnetic field on the turbulent wake of a cylinder in free-surface magnetohydrodynamic channel flow
    journal, February 2014

    • Rhoads, John R.; Edlund, Eric M.; Ji, Hantao
    • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 742
    • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2014.11

    The standing hydraulic jump: theory, computations and comparisons with experiments
    journal, September 1992


    Study of small-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic surface waves on liquid metal
    journal, January 2005

    • Ji, Hantao; Fox, William; Pace, David
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1822933

    Application of IR imaging for free-surface velocity measurement in liquid-metal systems
    journal, January 2017

    • Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4973421

    Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy configurations
    journal, April 1997


    Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors
    journal, November 2017


    Hydraulic Jump
    journal, September 2011


    The MTOR LM-MHD Flow Facility, and Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Thin Layer, Liquid Metal Flow in a 1/R Toroidal Magnetic Field
    journal, July 2003

    • Morley, Neil B.; Burris, Jonathan
    • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 44, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.13182/fst03-a313

    A Study of Liquid Metal Film Flow, Under Fusion Relevant Magnetic Fields
    journal, April 2005

    • Narula, M.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. A.
    • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 47, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.13182/fst05-a745

    Flow of Fluids in Conduits and open Channels.
    journal, July 1956


    Experimental demonstration of hydraulic jump control in liquid metal channel flow using Lorentz force
    dataset, January 2018

    • Fisher, Adam; Kolemen, Egemen; Hvasta, Mike
    • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
    • DOI: 10.11578/1562013

    Liquid Metal Diagnostics
    journal, November 2019