skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Thermal stability of ultra-wide-bandgap MgZnO alloys with wurtzite structure

Abstract

Mg xZn 1–xO thin films were grown as metastable alloys via a sputtering technique in order to achieve single-phase wurtzite alloys with deep-UV optical bandgaps. As-grown alloys with Mg composition range 0–72% resulted in optical bandgaps spanning the UV-range of 3.3–4.4 eV. The thermal stability of the alloys was studied via post-growth controlled annealing experiments up to 900 °C. Alloys with low Mg up to 34% were found to be highly stable and retained their optical and material properties; however, alloys with higher Mg, up to 72%, were found to be unstable and were phase separated into wurtzite and cubic structural phases with respective optical bandgaps at ~ 3.5 and 6.0 eV. Both the as-grown and annealed alloys were studied using X-ray diffraction for structural identification, transmission spectroscopy for bandgap analysis, and Raman scattering for mapping the phonon mode-behavior. The experimental value for the solubility limit was found to be ~ 30%. A straightforward model calculation based on the Raman-mode saturation behavior yielded a similar value for the solubility limit of the alloys. Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of available phase-diagrams for stable-state ceramics alloys that were grown under thermodynamics equilibrium conditions.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1463178
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1489145
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-07ER46386
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics Journal Volume: 29 Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0957-4522
Publisher:
Springer Science + Business Media
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Thapa, Dinesh, Huso, Jesse, Lapp, Jeffrey, Rajabi, Negar, Morrison, John L., McCluskey, Matthew D., and Bergman, Leah. Thermal stability of ultra-wide-bandgap MgZnO alloys with wurtzite structure. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10854-018-9772-y.
Thapa, Dinesh, Huso, Jesse, Lapp, Jeffrey, Rajabi, Negar, Morrison, John L., McCluskey, Matthew D., & Bergman, Leah. Thermal stability of ultra-wide-bandgap MgZnO alloys with wurtzite structure. United Kingdom. doi:10.1007/s10854-018-9772-y.
Thapa, Dinesh, Huso, Jesse, Lapp, Jeffrey, Rajabi, Negar, Morrison, John L., McCluskey, Matthew D., and Bergman, Leah. Tue . "Thermal stability of ultra-wide-bandgap MgZnO alloys with wurtzite structure". United Kingdom. doi:10.1007/s10854-018-9772-y.
@article{osti_1463178,
title = {Thermal stability of ultra-wide-bandgap MgZnO alloys with wurtzite structure},
author = {Thapa, Dinesh and Huso, Jesse and Lapp, Jeffrey and Rajabi, Negar and Morrison, John L. and McCluskey, Matthew D. and Bergman, Leah},
abstractNote = {MgxZn1–xO thin films were grown as metastable alloys via a sputtering technique in order to achieve single-phase wurtzite alloys with deep-UV optical bandgaps. As-grown alloys with Mg composition range 0–72% resulted in optical bandgaps spanning the UV-range of 3.3–4.4 eV. The thermal stability of the alloys was studied via post-growth controlled annealing experiments up to 900 °C. Alloys with low Mg up to 34% were found to be highly stable and retained their optical and material properties; however, alloys with higher Mg, up to 72%, were found to be unstable and were phase separated into wurtzite and cubic structural phases with respective optical bandgaps at ~ 3.5 and 6.0 eV. Both the as-grown and annealed alloys were studied using X-ray diffraction for structural identification, transmission spectroscopy for bandgap analysis, and Raman scattering for mapping the phonon mode-behavior. The experimental value for the solubility limit was found to be ~ 30%. A straightforward model calculation based on the Raman-mode saturation behavior yielded a similar value for the solubility limit of the alloys. Furthermore, the results are discussed in terms of available phase-diagrams for stable-state ceramics alloys that were grown under thermodynamics equilibrium conditions.},
doi = {10.1007/s10854-018-9772-y},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science Materials in Electronics},
number = 19,
volume = 29,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1007/s10854-018-9772-y

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: The XRD spectra of the samples with relatively low Mg composition: Mg0.17Zn0.83O and Mg0.34Zn0.66O. The spectra are for the as-grown samples and for samples that were annealed at 750 and 900 °C. The main diffraction peak is due to the wurtzite structure; no diffraction due to cubic structure ismore » detectable« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Structural and electronic properties of wurtzite MgZnO and BeMgZnO alloys and their thermodynamic stability
journal, December 2016

  • Gorczyca, I.; Teisseyre, H.; Suski, T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4971177

Effects of Mg on the electrical characteristics and thermal stability of MgxZn1−xO thin film transistors
journal, March 2011

  • Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Reyes, Pavel I.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3567533

Phase Relations in the Systems MgO-ZnO-SnO2, NiO-ZnO-SnO2, and MgO-NiO-SnO2
journal, May 1976


Growth of high Mg content wurtzite MgZnO epitaxial films via pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, February 2016


Optical transitions and multiphonon Raman scattering of Cu doped ZnO and MgZnO ceramics
journal, February 2009

  • Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Mitchell, James
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3081628

MgZnO p–n heterostructure light-emitting devices
journal, January 2013

  • Liu, Ji-Shan; Shan, Chong-Xin; Li, Bing-Hui
  • Optics Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1364/OL.38.002113

The deposition and annealing study of MOCVD ZnMgO
journal, April 2005


Probing embedded structural inhomogeneities in MgZnO alloys via selective resonant Raman scattering
journal, May 2013

  • Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Jesse; Che, Hui
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4805005

Mg0.55Zn0.45O solar-blind ultraviolet detector with high photoresponse performance and large internal gain
journal, March 2011

  • Hou, Y. N.; Mei, Z. X.; Liu, Z. L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3563705

Rapid and High-Efficiency Laser-Alloying Formation of ZnMgO Nanocrystals
journal, June 2016

  • Liu, Peisheng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jun
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep28131

Spin-Orbit Splitting of the Γ Exciton in MgO
journal, August 1966


Energy band bowing parameter in AlxGa1−xN alloys
journal, October 2002

  • Yun, Feng; Reshchikov, Michael A.; He, Lei
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 92, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1508420

Growth far from equilibrium: Examples from III-V semiconductors
journal, December 2016

  • Kuech, Thomas F.; Babcock, Susan E.; Mawst, Luke
  • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 3, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4944801

Optical studies on Mg x Zn1−x O wide band gap semiconductor in the perspective of phase equilibrium
journal, March 2007

  • Ghosh, R.; Basak, D.
  • Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 18, Issue S1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10854-007-9169-9

Phonon dynamics and Urbach energy studies of MgZnO alloys
journal, March 2015

  • Huso, Jesse; Che, Hui; Thapa, Dinesh
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4916096

Phase transitions of room temperature RF-sputtered ZnO/Mg0.4Zn0.6O multilayer thin films after thermal annealing
journal, January 2012


Phase stability of cubic Mg0.55Zn0.45O thin film studied by continuous thermal annealing method
journal, March 2009

  • Ju, Z. G.; Shan, C. X.; Yang, C. L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3097022

Simulating light-saturation curves for photosynthesis and calcification by reef-building corals
journal, January 1981


The System MgO-ZnO-SiO2
journal, August 1965


Plasmon generation in sputtered Ga-doped MgZnO thin films for solar cell applications
journal, June 2016

  • Awasthi, Vishnu; Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Garg, Vivek
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4953877

Efficient VLSI Implementation of Neural Networks With Hyperbolic Tangent Activation Function
journal, January 2014

  • Zamanlooy, Babak; Mirhassani, Mitra
  • IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TVLSI.2012.2232321

A review of recent research on the growth and physical properties of single crystal metastable elemental and alloy semiconductors
journal, January 1983

  • Greene, J. E.
  • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1116/1.582492

Effect of post annealing on the band gap of Mg x Zn 1− x O thin films
journal, January 2008


Optical and structural properties of sol–gel prepared MgZnO alloy thin films
journal, January 2008


MgxZn1−xO as a II–VI widegap semiconductor alloy
journal, May 1998

  • Ohtomo, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Koida, T.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 72, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.121384

A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film
journal, November 1976

  • Manifacier, J. C.; Gasiot, J.; Fillard, J. P.
  • Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1088/0022-3735/9/11/032

UV-luminescent MgZnO semiconductor alloys: nanostructure and optical properties
journal, October 2016

  • Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Jesse; Miklos, Kevin
  • Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 28, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10854-016-5825-2

Phase Equilibria and Manganese-Activated Fluorescence in the System Zn[sub 3](PO[sub 4])[sub 2]-Mg[sub 3](PO[sub 4])[sub 2]
journal, January 1959

  • Sarver, J. F.; Katnack, Fred L.; Hummel, F. A.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 106, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2427190

Molecular Beam Epitaxy of High Magnesium Content Single-Phase Wurzite Mg x Zn 1-x O Alloys ($x\simeq 0.5$) and Their Application to Solar-Blind Region Photodetectors
journal, April 2003

  • Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shizuo
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, Issue Part 2, No. 4B
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.42.L401

Phase equilibria at sub-solidus conditions in the Fe-Mg-Zn-O system in air
journal, December 2004


Thermal stability of supersaturated MgxZn1−xO alloy films and MgxZn1−xO/ZnO heterointerfaces
journal, December 1999

  • Ohtomo, A.; Shiroki, R.; Ohkubo, I.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 75, Issue 26
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.125545