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Title: Editors' Choice—Field Trials Testing of Mixed Potential Electrochemical Hydrogen Safety Sensors at Commercial California Hydrogen Filling Stations

Hydrogen safety sensors must meet specific performance requirements, mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy, for hydrogen fueling station monitoring. Here, we describe the long-term performance of two zirconia-based mixed potential electrochemical hydrogen gas sensors, developed specifically with a high sensitivity to hydrogen, low cross-sensitivity, and fast response time. Over a two-year period, sensors with tin-doped indium oxide and strontium doped lanthanum chromite electrodes were deployed at two stations in four field trials tests conducted in Los Angeles. The sensors documented the existence of hydrogen plumes ranging in concentration from 100 to as high as 2700 ppm in the area surrounding the dispenser, consistent with depressurization from 700 bar following vehicle refueling. As expected, the hydrogen concentration reported by the mixed potential sensors was influenced by wind direction. Baseline stability testing at a Chino, CA station showed no measureable baseline drift throughout 206 days of uninterrupted data acquisition. In conclusion, the high baseline stability, excellent correlation with logged fueling/depressurization events, and absence of false alarms suggest that the zirconia-based mixed potential sensor platform is a good candidate for protecting hydrogen infrastructure where frequent calibrations or sensor replacement to reduce the false alarm frequency have been shown to be cost prohibitive.
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [3] ;  [3]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Hydrogen Frontier, Inc., Gardena, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-25235; LLNL-JRNL-733913
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC52-07NA27344
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 13; Conference: 232nd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, National Harbor, MD (United States), 1-5 Oct 2017; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Fuel Cell Technologies Program (EE-3F); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
08 HYDROGEN; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Energy Sciences; Mixed Potential; Hydrogen Sensor; Electrochemical Sensor
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1409780