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Title: Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

In the electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) process, a substantial number of high-gamma prime Ni-based superalloys are considered as non-printable due to a high propensity to form cracks. In this research, we focused on computational modeling framework to predict solidification-related cracking phenomena in EB-PBF processes. The cracking analysis was performed on cylindrical overhang structures where the cracks are observed only on one side of the part. Comprehensive microstructural characterization correlated the cracking tendency to low-melting point liquid-film formation along columnar grain boundaries with high misorientation angles due to partitioning of alloying elements. Uncoupled numerical thermal and mechanical models were used to rationalize the relationship between process parameters, build geometry, and cracking. The simulations showed asymmetric temperature distributions and associated asymmetric tensile thermal stresses over a cross section due to differences in section modulus and periodic changes in beam scanning directions. Here, the results provide a potential pathway based on spatially varying beam scanning strategies to reduce the cracking tendency during additive manufacturing of complex geometries on the overhang structure in high-gamma prime nickel-based superalloys.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Knoxville, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1462897
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Publisher:
ASM International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Lee, Y. S., Kirka, Michael M., Kim, Seokpum, Sridharan, Niyanth, Okello, Alfred, Dehoff, Ryan R., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8.
Lee, Y. S., Kirka, Michael M., Kim, Seokpum, Sridharan, Niyanth, Okello, Alfred, Dehoff, Ryan R., & Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8.
Lee, Y. S., Kirka, Michael M., Kim, Seokpum, Sridharan, Niyanth, Okello, Alfred, Dehoff, Ryan R., and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh. Thu . "Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1462897.
@article{osti_1462897,
title = {Asymmetric Cracking in Mar-M247 Alloy Builds During Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Lee, Y. S. and Kirka, Michael M. and Kim, Seokpum and Sridharan, Niyanth and Okello, Alfred and Dehoff, Ryan R. and Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh},
abstractNote = {In the electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) process, a substantial number of high-gamma prime Ni-based superalloys are considered as non-printable due to a high propensity to form cracks. In this research, we focused on computational modeling framework to predict solidification-related cracking phenomena in EB-PBF processes. The cracking analysis was performed on cylindrical overhang structures where the cracks are observed only on one side of the part. Comprehensive microstructural characterization correlated the cracking tendency to low-melting point liquid-film formation along columnar grain boundaries with high misorientation angles due to partitioning of alloying elements. Uncoupled numerical thermal and mechanical models were used to rationalize the relationship between process parameters, build geometry, and cracking. The simulations showed asymmetric temperature distributions and associated asymmetric tensile thermal stresses over a cross section due to differences in section modulus and periodic changes in beam scanning directions. Here, the results provide a potential pathway based on spatially varying beam scanning strategies to reduce the cracking tendency during additive manufacturing of complex geometries on the overhang structure in high-gamma prime nickel-based superalloys.},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-018-4788-8},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
number = 10,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Normalised model-based processing diagrams for additive layer manufacture of engineering alloys
journal, April 2016


Using JMatPro to model materials properties and behavior
journal, December 2003


Solidification and liquation cracking issues in welding
journal, June 2003


Microstructure of nickel-base superalloy MAR-M247 additively manufactured through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE)
journal, May 2017


NeT bead-on-plate round robin: Comparison of residual stress predictions and measurements
journal, January 2009


Overhanging Features and the SLM/DMLS Residual Stresses Problem: Review and Future Research Need
journal, April 2017


Strategy for Texture Management in Metals Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2017


Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)
journal, February 2016

  • Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-016-3354-5

Effect of strut orientation on the microstructure heterogeneities in AlSi10Mg lattices processed by selective laser melting
journal, December 2017


Solutioning and Aging of MAR-M247 Nickel-Based Superalloy
journal, April 2013

  • Baldan, Renato; da Rocha, Rafaela Lisboa Pereira; Tomasiello, Rafael Bogado
  • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 22, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-013-0565-4

Fractal scan strategies for selective laser melting of ‘unweldable’ nickel superalloys
journal, May 2017


Mesoscopic simulation of selective beam melting processes
journal, June 2011


Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms
journal, May 2012


Numerical simulation of multi-component evaporation during selective electron beam melting of TiAl
journal, September 2017


Solidification cracking of superalloy single- and bi-crystals
journal, June 2004


Temperature and stress analysis and simulation in fractal scanning-based laser sintering
journal, August 2006

  • Ma, Liang; Bin, Hongzan
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 9-10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-006-0665-5

The effect of scanning strategies on electron beam sintering
journal, June 2009


Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones
journal, April 2016


Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting
journal, January 2016

  • Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-3300-y

Hot cracking mechanism affecting a non-weldable Ni-based superalloy produced by selective electron Beam Melting
journal, January 2018


Electron Beam Welding of Crack Sensitive Nickel Super Alloy MAR-M-002
journal, March 2007


Stray grain formation, thermomechanical stress and solidification cracking in single crystal nickel base superalloy welds
journal, December 2004

  • Park, J. -W.; Vitek, J. M.; Babu, S. S.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1179/136217104225021841

The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy
journal, December 2014


DOLFIN: Automated finite element computing
journal, April 2010

  • Logg, Anders; Wells, Garth N.
  • ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, Vol. 37, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1145/1731022.1731030

Stress and deformation evaluations of scanning strategy effect in selective laser melting
journal, October 2016


Macroscopic simulation and experimental measurement of melt pool characteristics in selective electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V
journal, May 2016

  • Riedlbauer, Daniel; Scharowsky, Thorsten; Singer, Robert F.
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 88, Issue 5-8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-016-8819-6

Multi-physics modeling of single/multiple-track defect mechanisms in electron beam selective melting
journal, August 2017


Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2016


Quantification of thermomechanical conditions for weld solidification cracking
journal, February 1997

  • Feng, Z.; David, S. A.; Zacharia, T.
  • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 2, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1179/stw.1997.2.1.11

Numerical and experimental study of molten pool formation during continuous laser welding of AZ91 magnesium alloy
journal, January 2009


The effect of plasticity theory on predicted residual stress fields in numerical weld analyses
journal, March 2012


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Temperature and stress analysis and simulation in fractal scanning-based laser sintering
    journal, August 2006

    • Ma, Liang; Bin, Hongzan
    • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 9-10
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-006-0665-5

    Macroscopic simulation and experimental measurement of melt pool characteristics in selective electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V
    journal, May 2016

    • Riedlbauer, Daniel; Scharowsky, Thorsten; Singer, Robert F.
    • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 88, Issue 5-8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-016-8819-6

    Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting
    journal, January 2016

    • Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-015-3300-y

    Characterization of Steel-Ta Dissimilar Metal Builds Made Using Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (VHP-UAM)
    journal, February 2016

    • Sridharan, Niyanth; Norfolk, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh
    • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 47, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-016-3354-5

    Solutioning and Aging of MAR-M247 Nickel-Based Superalloy
    journal, April 2013

    • Baldan, Renato; da Rocha, Rafaela Lisboa Pereira; Tomasiello, Rafael Bogado
    • Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 22, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11665-013-0565-4

    The effect of scanning strategies on electron beam sintering
    journal, June 2009


    Using JMatPro to model materials properties and behavior
    journal, December 2003


    Solidification and liquation cracking issues in welding
    journal, June 2003


    Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing
    journal, January 2016


    Strategy for Texture Management in Metals Additive Manufacturing
    journal, January 2017


    Solidification cracking of superalloy single- and bi-crystals
    journal, June 2004


    Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones
    journal, April 2016


    Normalised model-based processing diagrams for additive layer manufacture of engineering alloys
    journal, April 2016


    Multi-physics modeling of single/multiple-track defect mechanisms in electron beam selective melting
    journal, August 2017


    Hot cracking mechanism affecting a non-weldable Ni-based superalloy produced by selective electron Beam Melting
    journal, January 2018


    Stress and deformation evaluations of scanning strategy effect in selective laser melting
    journal, October 2016


    Fractal scan strategies for selective laser melting of ‘unweldable’ nickel superalloys
    journal, May 2017


    Numerical and experimental study of molten pool formation during continuous laser welding of AZ91 magnesium alloy
    journal, January 2009


    The effect of plasticity theory on predicted residual stress fields in numerical weld analyses
    journal, March 2012


    NeT bead-on-plate round robin: Comparison of residual stress predictions and measurements
    journal, January 2009


    The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy
    journal, December 2014


    Microstructure of nickel-base superalloy MAR-M247 additively manufactured through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE)
    journal, May 2017


    Mesoscopic simulation of selective beam melting processes
    journal, June 2011


    Numerical simulation of multi-component evaporation during selective electron beam melting of TiAl
    journal, September 2017


    Effect of strut orientation on the microstructure heterogeneities in AlSi10Mg lattices processed by selective laser melting
    journal, December 2017


    DOLFIN: Automated finite element computing
    journal, April 2010

    • Logg, Anders; Wells, Garth N.
    • ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, Vol. 37, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1145/1731022.1731030

    Stray grain formation, thermomechanical stress and solidification cracking in single crystal nickel base superalloy welds
    journal, December 2004

    • Park, J. -W.; Vitek, J. M.; Babu, S. S.
    • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 9, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1179/136217104225021841

    Quantification of thermomechanical conditions for weld solidification cracking
    journal, February 1997

    • Feng, Z.; David, S. A.; Zacharia, T.
    • Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 2, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1179/stw.1997.2.1.11

    Overhanging Features and the SLM/DMLS Residual Stresses Problem: Review and Future Research Need
    journal, April 2017