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Title: Electroluminescence TPCs at the thermal diffusion limit

Abstract

Here, the NEXT experiment aims at searching for the hypothetical neutrinoless double-beta decay from the $${}^{136}$$Xe isotope using a high-purity xenon TPC. Efficient discrimination of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionisation tracks is a major requirement for the experiment. However, it is limited by the diffusion of electrons. It is known that the addition of a small fraction of a molecular gas to xenon reduces electron diffusion. On the other hand, the electroluminescence (EL) yield drops and the achievable energy resolution may be compromised. We have studied the effect of adding several molecular gases to xenon (CO$${}_{2}$$, CH$${}_{4}$$ and CF$${}_{4}$$) on the EL yield and energy resolution obtained in a small prototype of driftless gas proportional scintillation counter. We have compared our results on the scintillation characteristics (EL yield and energy resolution) with a microscopic simulation, obtaining the diffusion coefficients in those conditions as well. Accordingly, electron diffusion may be reduced from about 10 mm/$$\sqrt{\mathrm{m}}$$ for pure xenon down to 2.5 mm/$$\sqrt{\mathrm{m}}$$ using additive concentrations of about 0.05%, 0.2% and 0.02% for CO$${}_{2}$$, CH$${}_{4}$$ and CF$${}_{4}$$, respectively. Our results show that CF$${}_{4}$$ admixtures present the highest EL yield in those conditions, but very poor energy resolution as a result of huge fluctuations observed in the EL formation. CH$${}_{4}$$ presents the best energy resolution despite the EL yield being the lowest. The results obtained with xenon admixtures are extrapolated to the operational conditions of the NEXT-100 TPC. CO$${}_{2}$$ and CH$${}_{4}$$ show potential as molecular additives in a large xenon TPC, CH$${}_{4}$$ showing the best performance and stability to be used in the NEXT-100 TPC, with an extrapolated energy resolution of 0.4% at 2.45 MeV for concentrations below 0.4%.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
NEXT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1462728
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1550849
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1806.05891; FERMILAB-PUB-18-290-CD
Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479; 1678111; TRN: US1902192
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of High Energy Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 2019; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479
Publisher:
Springer Berlin
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Dark Matter and Double Beta Decay (experiments); Photon production; Particle correlations and fluctuations; Rare decay

Citation Formats

Henriques, C. A. O., Monteiro, C. M. B., González-Díaz, D., Azevedo, C. D. R., Freitas, E. D. C., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, A. F. M., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Fernandes, L. M. P., Adams, C., Álvarez, V., Arazi, L., Bailey, K., Ballester, F., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carrión, J. V., Cebrián, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Escada, J., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Generowicz, J., Goldschmidt, A., Guenette, R., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hafidi, K., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Johnston, S., Jones, B. J. P., Kekic, M., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez, A., Martínez-Lema, G., McDonald, A., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Psihas, F., Querol, M., Renner, J., Repond, J., Riordan, S., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Romo-Luque, C., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., and Yahlali, N. Electroluminescence TPCs at the thermal diffusion limit. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2019)027.
Henriques, C. A. O., Monteiro, C. M. B., González-Díaz, D., Azevedo, C. D. R., Freitas, E. D. C., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, A. F. M., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Fernandes, L. M. P., Adams, C., Álvarez, V., Arazi, L., Bailey, K., Ballester, F., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carrión, J. V., Cebrián, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Escada, J., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Generowicz, J., Goldschmidt, A., Guenette, R., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hafidi, K., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Johnston, S., Jones, B. J. P., Kekic, M., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez, A., Martínez-Lema, G., McDonald, A., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Psihas, F., Querol, M., Renner, J., Repond, J., Riordan, S., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Romo-Luque, C., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., & Yahlali, N. Electroluminescence TPCs at the thermal diffusion limit. United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2019)027.
Henriques, C. A. O., Monteiro, C. M. B., González-Díaz, D., Azevedo, C. D. R., Freitas, E. D. C., Mano, R. D. P., Jorge, M. R., Fernandes, A. F. M., Gómez-Cadenas, J. J., Fernandes, L. M. P., Adams, C., Álvarez, V., Arazi, L., Bailey, K., Ballester, F., Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M., Borges, F. I. G. M., Botas, A., Cárcel, S., Carrión, J. V., Cebrián, S., Conde, C. A. N., Díaz, J., Diesburg, M., Escada, J., Esteve, R., Felkai, R., Ferrario, P., Ferreira, A. L., Generowicz, J., Goldschmidt, A., Guenette, R., Gutiérrez, R. M., Hafidi, K., Hauptman, J., Hernandez, A. I., Hernando Morata, J. A., Herrero, V., Johnston, S., Jones, B. J. P., Kekic, M., Labarga, L., Laing, A., Lebrun, P., López-March, N., Losada, M., Martín-Albo, J., Martínez, A., Martínez-Lema, G., McDonald, A., Monrabal, F., Mora, F. J., Muñoz Vidal, J., Musti, M., Nebot-Guinot, M., Novella, P., Nygren, D. R., Palmeiro, B., Para, A., Pérez, J., Psihas, F., Querol, M., Renner, J., Repond, J., Riordan, S., Ripoll, L., Rodríguez, J., Rogers, L., Romo-Luque, C., Santos, F. P., dos Santos, J. M. F., Simón, A., Sofka, C., Sorel, M., Stiegler, T., Toledo, J. F., Torrent, J., Veloso, J. F. C. A., Webb, R., White, J. T., and Yahlali, N. Thu . "Electroluminescence TPCs at the thermal diffusion limit". United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2019)027. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1462728.
@article{osti_1462728,
title = {Electroluminescence TPCs at the thermal diffusion limit},
author = {Henriques, C. A. O. and Monteiro, C. M. B. and González-Díaz, D. and Azevedo, C. D. R. and Freitas, E. D. C. and Mano, R. D. P. and Jorge, M. R. and Fernandes, A. F. M. and Gómez-Cadenas, J. J. and Fernandes, L. M. P. and Adams, C. and Álvarez, V. and Arazi, L. and Bailey, K. and Ballester, F. and Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M. and Borges, F. I. G. M. and Botas, A. and Cárcel, S. and Carrión, J. V. and Cebrián, S. and Conde, C. A. N. and Díaz, J. and Diesburg, M. and Escada, J. and Esteve, R. and Felkai, R. and Ferrario, P. and Ferreira, A. L. and Generowicz, J. and Goldschmidt, A. and Guenette, R. and Gutiérrez, R. M. and Hafidi, K. and Hauptman, J. and Hernandez, A. I. and Hernando Morata, J. A. and Herrero, V. and Johnston, S. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kekic, M. and Labarga, L. and Laing, A. and Lebrun, P. and López-March, N. and Losada, M. and Martín-Albo, J. and Martínez, A. and Martínez-Lema, G. and McDonald, A. and Monrabal, F. and Mora, F. J. and Muñoz Vidal, J. and Musti, M. and Nebot-Guinot, M. and Novella, P. and Nygren, D. R. and Palmeiro, B. and Para, A. and Pérez, J. and Psihas, F. and Querol, M. and Renner, J. and Repond, J. and Riordan, S. and Ripoll, L. and Rodríguez, J. and Rogers, L. and Romo-Luque, C. and Santos, F. P. and dos Santos, J. M. F. and Simón, A. and Sofka, C. and Sorel, M. and Stiegler, T. and Toledo, J. F. and Torrent, J. and Veloso, J. F. C. A. and Webb, R. and White, J. T. and Yahlali, N.},
abstractNote = {Here, the NEXT experiment aims at searching for the hypothetical neutrinoless double-beta decay from the ${}^{136}$Xe isotope using a high-purity xenon TPC. Efficient discrimination of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionisation tracks is a major requirement for the experiment. However, it is limited by the diffusion of electrons. It is known that the addition of a small fraction of a molecular gas to xenon reduces electron diffusion. On the other hand, the electroluminescence (EL) yield drops and the achievable energy resolution may be compromised. We have studied the effect of adding several molecular gases to xenon (CO${}_{2}$, CH${}_{4}$ and CF${}_{4}$) on the EL yield and energy resolution obtained in a small prototype of driftless gas proportional scintillation counter. We have compared our results on the scintillation characteristics (EL yield and energy resolution) with a microscopic simulation, obtaining the diffusion coefficients in those conditions as well. Accordingly, electron diffusion may be reduced from about 10 mm/$\sqrt{\mathrm{m}}$ for pure xenon down to 2.5 mm/$\sqrt{\mathrm{m}}$ using additive concentrations of about 0.05%, 0.2% and 0.02% for CO${}_{2}$, CH${}_{4}$ and CF${}_{4}$, respectively. Our results show that CF${}_{4}$ admixtures present the highest EL yield in those conditions, but very poor energy resolution as a result of huge fluctuations observed in the EL formation. CH${}_{4}$ presents the best energy resolution despite the EL yield being the lowest. The results obtained with xenon admixtures are extrapolated to the operational conditions of the NEXT-100 TPC. CO${}_{2}$ and CH${}_{4}$ show potential as molecular additives in a large xenon TPC, CH${}_{4}$ showing the best performance and stability to be used in the NEXT-100 TPC, with an extrapolated energy resolution of 0.4% at 2.45 MeV for concentrations below 0.4%.},
doi = {10.1007/JHEP01(2019)027},
journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 2019,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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Secondary scintillation yield in high-pressure xenon gas for neutrinoless double beta decay <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mo stretchy="false">(</mml:mo><mml:mn>0</mml:mn><mml:mi>ν</mml:mi><mml:mi>β</mml:mi><mml:mi>β</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">)</mml:mo></mml:math> search
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