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Title: How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry

Abstract

Abstract Fisheries produce large quantities of discards, an important resource for scavenging seabirds. However, a policy reform banning discards, which is soon to be implemented within the EU, will impose a food shortage upon scavengers, and it is still largely unknown how scavengers will behave. We studied the diet (hard remains), trophic (stable isotope analysis), and foraging (individual tracking) ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry: Audouin’s gull Larus audouinii (AG) and yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (YLG), in South Portugal, under normal fishery activity (NFA; work days) and low fishery activity (LFA; weekends), over two consecutive years. We established a pattern of dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two gull species. Under LFA, yellow-legged gulls reduced their time spent at-sea, thus foraging more in alternative habitats (e.g. refuse dumps) and widening their isotopic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour). Contrastingly, Audouin’s gull had a narrower trophic niche (i.e. specialist behaviour), foraging exclusively at-sea, reducing the amount of demersal fish and increasing the amount of pelagic fish in their diet. Under NFA, both species foraged mostly at-sea, feeding almost exclusively on fish, with increased consumption of demersal species (i.e. fishery discards). In general, yellow-legged gull had a broader trophic niche (i.e.more » generalist behaviour) when compared with the narrower isotopic niche of Audouin’s gull (i.e. specialist behaviour). Overall, both gull species relied heavily on fishery discards. However, there was visible dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two species, associated with their dietary and habitat preferences that could be attributed to the availability of anthropogenic resources, such as fishery discards.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];
  1. Department of Life Sciences, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Coimbra, Rua da Matemática 49, Coimbra, Portugal
  2. Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, The Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Ave, Cardiff, UK
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1462135
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
ICES Journal of Marine Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: ICES Journal of Marine Science Journal Volume: 75 Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1054-3139
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., and Votier, ed., Stephen. How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy096.
Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., & Votier, ed., Stephen. How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy096.
Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., and Votier, ed., Stephen. Mon . "How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy096.
@article{osti_1462135,
title = {How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry},
author = {Matos, Diana M. and Ramos, Jaime A. and Calado, Joana G. and Ceia, Filipe R. and Hey, Jessica and Paiva, Vitor H. and Votier, ed., Stephen},
abstractNote = {Abstract Fisheries produce large quantities of discards, an important resource for scavenging seabirds. However, a policy reform banning discards, which is soon to be implemented within the EU, will impose a food shortage upon scavengers, and it is still largely unknown how scavengers will behave. We studied the diet (hard remains), trophic (stable isotope analysis), and foraging (individual tracking) ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry: Audouin’s gull Larus audouinii (AG) and yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (YLG), in South Portugal, under normal fishery activity (NFA; work days) and low fishery activity (LFA; weekends), over two consecutive years. We established a pattern of dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two gull species. Under LFA, yellow-legged gulls reduced their time spent at-sea, thus foraging more in alternative habitats (e.g. refuse dumps) and widening their isotopic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour). Contrastingly, Audouin’s gull had a narrower trophic niche (i.e. specialist behaviour), foraging exclusively at-sea, reducing the amount of demersal fish and increasing the amount of pelagic fish in their diet. Under NFA, both species foraged mostly at-sea, feeding almost exclusively on fish, with increased consumption of demersal species (i.e. fishery discards). In general, yellow-legged gull had a broader trophic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour) when compared with the narrower isotopic niche of Audouin’s gull (i.e. specialist behaviour). Overall, both gull species relied heavily on fishery discards. However, there was visible dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two species, associated with their dietary and habitat preferences that could be attributed to the availability of anthropogenic resources, such as fishery discards.},
doi = {10.1093/icesjms/fsy096},
journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
number = 6,
volume = 75,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsy096

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Works referenced in this record:

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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2018-01-01">January 2018</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Calado, J. 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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2003-07-30">July 2003</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.</span> </li> <li> Scientia Marina, Vol. 67, Issue S2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2003.67s223" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.3989/scimar.2003.67s223<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2004-11-01">November 2004</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Lewison, R.; Crowder, L.; Read, A.</span> </li> <li> Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 19, Issue 11</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.004" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.004<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-1946-1" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Short- and long-term consistency in the foraging niche of wandering albatrosses<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-05-01">May 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Ceia, Filipe R.; Phillips, Richard A.; Ramos, Jaime A.</span> </li> <li> Marine Biology, Vol. 159, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-1946-1" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/s00227-012-1946-1<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Spatial match-mismatch in the Benguela upwelling zone: should we expect chlorophyll and sea-surface temperature to predict marine predator distributions?<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2008-04-01">April 2008</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Grémillet, David; Lewis, Sue; Drapeau, Laurent</span> </li> <li> Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 45, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159974" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2016-07-22">July 2016</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel</span> </li> <li> PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159974" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1371/journal.pone.0159974<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div></div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/49522-influence-trophic-level-feeding-location-levels-organochlorine-contaminants-seabird-eggs-revealed-stable-carbon-nitrogen-isotope-analysis" itemprop="url">The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Hobson, K.</span> ; <span class="author">Jarman, W.M.</span> ; <span class="author">Bott, J.A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata),<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/887179-abundance-distribution-estimated-consumption-kg-fish-piscivorous-birds-along-yakima-river-washington-state-implications-fisheries-management-annual-report" itemprop="url">Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Major, III, Walter</span> ; <span class="author">Grassley, James M.</span> ; <span class="author">Ryding, Kristen E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance of fish-eating birds, primarily ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) and California (L. californicus) gulls and monitored their behavior at two man-made structures within the Yakima River in eastern Washington: Horn Rapids Dam, a low-head irrigation dam, and the return pipe for the Chandler Juvenile Fish Handling Facility. Earlier observations of congregations of gulls at these structures suggested an increased likelihood of predation of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. We estimated the number of fish consumed and examined the relationship between river flow and gull numbers and fish taken. Numbers of gulls at the structures varied daily between their arrival in Late March-early April and departure in late June (mean ({+-}SE) - Horn Rapids: 11.7 ({+-}2.0), Chandler: 20.1 ({+-}1.5) ). During the 4-yr study, numbers at Horn Rapids peaked dramatically during the last 2 weeks in May (between 132.9 ({+-}4.2) to 36.6 ({+-}2.2) gulls/day) and appeared to the associated with the release of > 1-mil hatchery juvenile fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) above the 2 study sites. A comparable peak in gull abundance was not observed at Chandler. Diurnal patterns of gull abundance also varied among years and sites. The relationship between foraging efficiency and gull numbers was not consistent among years or sites. Gull numbers were not correlated with river flow when year was considered. However, variations in flow among years appeared to be associated with average gull numbers at each site, but trends were not consistent between sites. Low seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Chandler, whereas high seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Horn Rapids. Assuming all fish taken were salmonids, we estimate gulls consumed between 0.1-10.3 % of the juvenile salmonids passing or being released from the Chandler Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility located above the two structures. Staggered releases of hatchery fish, nocturnal releases of fish entrained in the Chandler facility, changes in the orientation of the outflow from the facility, and physical deterrents (e.g., sprinklers or overhead wires) may significantly reduce take by gulls at these sites.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/887179" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="887179" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >10.2172/887179</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/887179" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="887179" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/812190-development-index-bird-predation-juvenile-salmonids-within-yakima-river-annual-report" itemprop="url">Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Major, III, Walter</span> ; <span class="author">Grue, Christian E.</span> ; <span class="author">Ryding, Kristen E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within upper river reaches. Consumption on the lower reaches was distributed among a number of species, with slightly more then half of all fish consumption being attributed to American White Pelicans. Estimated consumption by gulls at both hotspots combined (8 Apr-30 Jun) was 169,883 fish. Assuming a worst case scenario (all fish taken were smolts) this represented approximately 4.9% of all smolts estimated passing or being released from the Prosser Dam area during the 2001 smolt migration season. Total gull abundances and estimates of consumption between the two hotspot sites were opposite that seen in 2000. Foraging gulls at Horn Rapids Dam were regressed against flow for the 3 years and found to be significant (alpha = 0.1, P=0.081, r{sup 2} = .2589). A similar 3-year regression vs fish passage through the Chandler Juvenile Fish Facility, however, did not show a significant relationship (alpha = 0.1, P = 0.396, r{sup 2} = .3708). Total estimated take by Common Mergansers across all strata surveyed was 14,777 kg between 8 Apr and 31 Aug, 2001. Approximately 66 percent of that consumption was within the upper river reaches (Stratum 1) where there is a known breeding population of mergansers. Graphical comparisons of merganser abundances over the three years (1999-2001) in the upper reaches of the Yakima River suggest an increase in 2001 from the previous 2 years in both the spring and summer survey periods, but overlapping confidence intervals prevent assumptions regarding upward or downward trends in abundance.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/812190" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="812190" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >10.2172/812190</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/812190" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="812190" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/459026-trophic-position-model-pelagic-food-webs-impact-contaminant-bioaccumulation-lake-trout" itemprop="url">A trophic position model of pelagic food webs: Impact on contaminant bioaccumulation in lake trout</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Zanden, M.J.V.</span> ; <span class="author">Rasmussen, J.B.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Ecological Monographs</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">To test how well use of discrete trophic levels represents pelagic trophic structure, dietary data from > 200 lake trout and pelagic forage fish populations was compiled and calculated a continuous (fractional) measure of trophic position for each population. Lake trout trophic position, which ranged from 3.0 to 4.6, explained 85% of the between-lake variability in mean PCB levels in lake trout muscle tissue, providing a significant improvement over the use of discrete trophic levels as a predictor of contaminant levels. Having demonstrated the utility of trophic position, a generalized {open_quotes}trophic position model{close_quotes} of lake trout food webs was developed.<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> This approach eliminates minor trophic linkages, calculates a fractional measure of each species` trophic position, and aggregates species of similar trophic position into trophic guilds. This {open_quotes}realized{close_quotes} model represents trophic structure in terms of mass transfer and accounts for the complexity and omnivory that characterize aquatic food webs. In our trophic position model, smelt (a species of pelagic forage fish) were designated a trophic guild separate from other pelagic forage fish, due to their elevated trophic position. Separate consideration of smelt was supported by elevated lake trout trophic position, PCB, and Hg levels in lakes containing smelt. Consideration of omnivory caused biomagnification factors (BMFs) to be many times higher than BMFs that ignored omnivory. These omnivory-corrected BMF estimates appeared to be more consistent with values calculated using stable nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N), an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N, an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N provided trophic position estimates that generally corresponded with our diet-derived estimates. 186 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2307/2963490" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="459026" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.2307/2963490</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/478330-accumulation-chlorinated-benzenes-earthworms" itemprop="url">Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Beyer, W.N.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s001289900250" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="478330" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1007/s001289900250</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.200113.2012.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.200113.2012.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.200113.2012.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript><script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript></body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.200113.2012 --> </html>