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Title: How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry

Abstract

Abstract Fisheries produce large quantities of discards, an important resource for scavenging seabirds. However, a policy reform banning discards, which is soon to be implemented within the EU, will impose a food shortage upon scavengers, and it is still largely unknown how scavengers will behave. We studied the diet (hard remains), trophic (stable isotope analysis), and foraging (individual tracking) ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry: Audouin’s gull Larus audouinii (AG) and yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (YLG), in South Portugal, under normal fishery activity (NFA; work days) and low fishery activity (LFA; weekends), over two consecutive years. We established a pattern of dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two gull species. Under LFA, yellow-legged gulls reduced their time spent at-sea, thus foraging more in alternative habitats (e.g. refuse dumps) and widening their isotopic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour). Contrastingly, Audouin’s gull had a narrower trophic niche (i.e. specialist behaviour), foraging exclusively at-sea, reducing the amount of demersal fish and increasing the amount of pelagic fish in their diet. Under NFA, both species foraged mostly at-sea, feeding almost exclusively on fish, with increased consumption of demersal species (i.e. fishery discards). In general, yellow-legged gull had a broader trophic niche (i.e.more » generalist behaviour) when compared with the narrower isotopic niche of Audouin’s gull (i.e. specialist behaviour). Overall, both gull species relied heavily on fishery discards. However, there was visible dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two species, associated with their dietary and habitat preferences that could be attributed to the availability of anthropogenic resources, such as fishery discards.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];
  1. Department of Life Sciences, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Coimbra, Rua da Matemática 49, Coimbra, Portugal
  2. Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, The Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Ave, Cardiff, UK
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Supply Chain
OSTI Identifier:
1462135
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
ICES Journal of Marine Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: ICES Journal of Marine Science Journal Volume: 75 Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1054-3139
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., and Votier, ed., Stephen. How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy096.
Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., & Votier, ed., Stephen. How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry. United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy096
Matos, Diana M., Ramos, Jaime A., Calado, Joana G., Ceia, Filipe R., Hey, Jessica, Paiva, Vitor H., and Votier, ed., Stephen. Mon . "How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry". United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy096.
@article{osti_1462135,
title = {How fishing intensity affects the spatial and trophic ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry},
author = {Matos, Diana M. and Ramos, Jaime A. and Calado, Joana G. and Ceia, Filipe R. and Hey, Jessica and Paiva, Vitor H. and Votier, ed., Stephen},
abstractNote = {Abstract Fisheries produce large quantities of discards, an important resource for scavenging seabirds. However, a policy reform banning discards, which is soon to be implemented within the EU, will impose a food shortage upon scavengers, and it is still largely unknown how scavengers will behave. We studied the diet (hard remains), trophic (stable isotope analysis), and foraging (individual tracking) ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry: Audouin’s gull Larus audouinii (AG) and yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (YLG), in South Portugal, under normal fishery activity (NFA; work days) and low fishery activity (LFA; weekends), over two consecutive years. We established a pattern of dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two gull species. Under LFA, yellow-legged gulls reduced their time spent at-sea, thus foraging more in alternative habitats (e.g. refuse dumps) and widening their isotopic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour). Contrastingly, Audouin’s gull had a narrower trophic niche (i.e. specialist behaviour), foraging exclusively at-sea, reducing the amount of demersal fish and increasing the amount of pelagic fish in their diet. Under NFA, both species foraged mostly at-sea, feeding almost exclusively on fish, with increased consumption of demersal species (i.e. fishery discards). In general, yellow-legged gull had a broader trophic niche (i.e. generalist behaviour) when compared with the narrower isotopic niche of Audouin’s gull (i.e. specialist behaviour). Overall, both gull species relied heavily on fishery discards. However, there was visible dietary, spatial, and temporal segregation between the two species, associated with their dietary and habitat preferences that could be attributed to the availability of anthropogenic resources, such as fishery discards.},
doi = {10.1093/icesjms/fsy096},
journal = {ICES Journal of Marine Science},
number = 6,
volume = 75,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy096

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Works referenced in this record:

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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2004-02-02">February 2004</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Catry, Teresa; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Inês</span> </li> <li> Ibis, Vol. 146, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1474-919X.2004.00254.x" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1046/j.1474-919X.2004.00254.x<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01463" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Seasonal and annual differences in the foraging ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry and their use of fishery discards<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; 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font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-05-01">May 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Ceia, Filipe R.; Phillips, Richard A.; Ramos, Jaime A.</span> </li> <li> Marine Biology, Vol. 159, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-1946-1" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/s00227-012-1946-1<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Spatial match-mismatch in the Benguela upwelling zone: should we expect chlorophyll and sea-surface temperature to predict marine predator distributions?<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2008-04-01">April 2008</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Grémillet, David; Lewis, Sue; Drapeau, Laurent</span> </li> <li> Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 45, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01447.x<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159974" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2016-07-22">July 2016</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel</span> </li> <li> PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue 7</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159974" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1371/journal.pone.0159974<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/49522-influence-trophic-level-feeding-location-levels-organochlorine-contaminants-seabird-eggs-revealed-stable-carbon-nitrogen-isotope-analysis" itemprop="url">The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Hobson, K</span> ; <span class="author">Jarman, W M</span> ; <span class="author">Bott, J A</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata),<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1764720-bioenergy-landscapes-drive-trophic-shifts-generalist-ants" itemprop="url">Bioenergy landscapes drive trophic shifts in generalist ants</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Helms, IV, Jackson A.</span> ; <span class="author">Roeder, Karl A.</span> ; <span class="author">Ijelu, Selassie E.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Animal Ecology</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Changes in trophic niche—the pathways through which an organism obtains energy and nutrients—are a fundamental way in which organisms respond to environmental conditions. But the capacity for species to alter their trophic niches in response to global change, and the ways they do so when able, remain largely unknown. Here we examine food webs in three long–term and large–scale experiments to test how resource availability and nutritional requirements interact to determine an organism's trophic niche in the context of one of the largest global trends in land use—the rise in bioenergy production. Here, we use carbon and nitrogen stable isotope<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> analyses to characterize arthropod food webs across three biofuel crops representing a gradient in plant resource richness (corn monocultures, fields dominated by native switchgrass and restored prairie), and to quantify changes in the trophic niche of a widespread generalist ant species across habitats. In doing so, we measure the effects of basal resource richness on food chain length, niche breadth and trophic position. We frame our results in the context of two hypotheses that explain variation in trophic niche—the niche variation hypothesis which emphasizes the importance of resource diversity and ecological opportunity, and the optimal diet hypothesis which emphasizes dietary constraints and the availability of optimal resources. Increasing plant richness lengthened food chains by 10%–20% compared to monocultures. Niche breadths of generalist ants did not vary with resource richness, suggesting they were limited by optimal diet requirements and constraints rather than by ecological opportunity. The ants instead responded to changes in plant richness by shifting their estimated trophic position. In resource–poor monocultures, the ants were top predators, sharing a trophic position with predatory spiders. In resource–rich environments, in contrast, the ants were omnivores, relying on a mix of animal prey and plant–based resources. In addition to highlighting novel ecosystem impacts of alternate bioenergy landscapes, our results suggest that niche breadth and trophic diversification depend more on the presence of optimal resources than on ecological opportunity alone.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13407" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1764720" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13407</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/887179-abundance-distribution-estimated-consumption-kg-fish-piscivorous-birds-along-yakima-river-washington-state-implications-fisheries-management-annual-report" itemprop="url">Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Major, III, Walter</span> ; <span class="author">Grassley, James M.</span> ; <span class="author">Ryding, Kristen E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance of fish-eating birds, primarily ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) and California (L. californicus) gulls and monitored their behavior at two man-made structures within the Yakima River in eastern Washington: Horn Rapids Dam, a low-head irrigation dam, and the return pipe for the Chandler Juvenile Fish Handling Facility. Earlier observations of congregations of gulls at these structures suggested an increased likelihood of predation of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. We estimated the number of fish consumed and examined the relationship between river flow and gull numbers and fish taken. Numbers of gulls at the structures varied daily between their arrival in Late March-early April and departure in late June (mean ({+-}SE) - Horn Rapids: 11.7 ({+-}2.0), Chandler: 20.1 ({+-}1.5) ). During the 4-yr study, numbers at Horn Rapids peaked dramatically during the last 2 weeks in May (between 132.9 ({+-}4.2) to 36.6 ({+-}2.2) gulls/day) and appeared to the associated with the release of > 1-mil hatchery juvenile fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) above the 2 study sites. A comparable peak in gull abundance was not observed at Chandler. Diurnal patterns of gull abundance also varied among years and sites. The relationship between foraging efficiency and gull numbers was not consistent among years or sites. Gull numbers were not correlated with river flow when year was considered. However, variations in flow among years appeared to be associated with average gull numbers at each site, but trends were not consistent between sites. Low seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Chandler, whereas high seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Horn Rapids. Assuming all fish taken were salmonids, we estimate gulls consumed between 0.1-10.3 % of the juvenile salmonids passing or being released from the Chandler Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility located above the two structures. Staggered releases of hatchery fish, nocturnal releases of fish entrained in the Chandler facility, changes in the orientation of the outflow from the facility, and physical deterrents (e.g., sprinklers or overhead wires) may significantly reduce take by gulls at these sites.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/887179" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="887179" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.2172/887179</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/887179" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="887179" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/962487-research-monitoring-evaluation-avian-predation-salmonid-smolts-lower-mid-columbia-river-final-season-summary" itemprop="url">Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Technical Report</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Roby, Daniel D</span> ; <span class="author">Collis, Ken</span> ; <span class="author">Lyons, Donald E</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a statistically significant change in the size of the Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island since 2000. Tern nesting success averaged 0.72 fledglings per breeding pair in 2006, significantly higher than in 2005 (0.37 fledglings per breeding pair), a year of poor ocean conditions. Despite the presumably higher availability of marine forage fishes in 2006, the proportion of juvenile salmonids in diets of Caspian terns (32% of prey items) averaged higher than in 2005 (23% of prey items) and 2004 (18% of prey items). Steelhead smolts were particular vulnerable to predation by East Sand Island terns in 2006, with predation rates as high as 20% on particular groups of PIT-tagged fish reaching the estuary. Consumption of juvenile salmonids by terns nesting at the East Sand Island colony in 2006 was approximately 5.3 million smolts (95% c.i. = 4.4-6.2 million), significantly higher than the estimated 3.6 million smolts consumed in 2005, but still roughly 7 million fewer smolts consumed compared to 1998 (when all terns nested on Rice Island in the upper estuary). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continue to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply, even in 2005 when availability of marine forage fishes declined due to poor ocean conditions. Further management of Caspian terns to reduce losses of juvenile salmonids would be implemented under the Caspian Tern Management Plan for the Columbia River Estuary; the Records of Decision (RODs) authorizing implementation of the plan were signed in November 2006. The ROD lists as the management goal the redistribution of approximately half of the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony to alternative colony sites in interior Oregon and San Francisco Bay, California (USFWS 2006). Implementation of the management plan is stalled, however, because of the lack of appropriated funds.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2172/962487" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="962487" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.2172/962487</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/962487" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="962487" data-product-type="Technical Report" data-product-subtype="" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/459026-trophic-position-model-pelagic-food-webs-impact-contaminant-bioaccumulation-lake-trout" itemprop="url">A trophic position model of pelagic food webs: Impact on contaminant bioaccumulation in lake trout</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Zanden, M J.V.</span> ; <span class="author">Rasmussen, J B</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Ecological Monographs</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">To test how well use of discrete trophic levels represents pelagic trophic structure, dietary data from > 200 lake trout and pelagic forage fish populations was compiled and calculated a continuous (fractional) measure of trophic position for each population. Lake trout trophic position, which ranged from 3.0 to 4.6, explained 85% of the between-lake variability in mean PCB levels in lake trout muscle tissue, providing a significant improvement over the use of discrete trophic levels as a predictor of contaminant levels. Having demonstrated the utility of trophic position, a generalized {open_quotes}trophic position model{close_quotes} of lake trout food webs was developed.<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> This approach eliminates minor trophic linkages, calculates a fractional measure of each species` trophic position, and aggregates species of similar trophic position into trophic guilds. This {open_quotes}realized{close_quotes} model represents trophic structure in terms of mass transfer and accounts for the complexity and omnivory that characterize aquatic food webs. In our trophic position model, smelt (a species of pelagic forage fish) were designated a trophic guild separate from other pelagic forage fish, due to their elevated trophic position. Separate consideration of smelt was supported by elevated lake trout trophic position, PCB, and Hg levels in lakes containing smelt. Consideration of omnivory caused biomagnification factors (BMFs) to be many times higher than BMFs that ignored omnivory. These omnivory-corrected BMF estimates appeared to be more consistent with values calculated using stable nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N), an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N, an alternative continuous measure of trophic position. {delta}{sup 15}N provided trophic position estimates that generally corresponded with our diet-derived estimates. 186 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.2307/2963490" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="459026" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >https://doi.org/10.2307/2963490</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.210420.1958.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.210420.1958.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.210420.1958.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.210420.1958 --> </html>