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Title: Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

Free-standing nanoribbons of InAs quantum membranes (QMs) transferred onto a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror substrate are characterized by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPS) and by standing-wave HXPS (SW-HXPS). Information on the chemical composition and on the chemical states of the elements within the nanoribbons was obtained by HXPS and on the quantitative depth profiles by SW-HXPS. By comparing the experimental SW-HXPS rocking curves to x-ray optical calculations, the chemical depth profile of the InAs(QM) and its interfaces were quantitatively derived with ångström precision. We determined that (i) the exposure to air induced the formation of an InAsO 4 layer on top of the stoichiometric InAs(QM); (ii) the top interface between the air-side InAsO 4 and the InAs(QM) is not sharp, indicating that interdiffusion occurs between these two layers; (iii) the bottom interface between the InAs(QM) and the native oxide SiO 2 on top of the (Si/Mo) substrate is abrupt. In addition, the valence band offset (VBO) between the InAs(QM) and the SiO 2/(Si/Mo) substrate was determined by HXPS. The value of VBO = 0.2 ± 0.04 eV is in good agreement with literature results obtained by electrical characterization, giving a clear indication of the formation of a well-defined and abrupt InAs/SiOmore » 2 heterojunction. We have demonstrated that HXPS and SW-HXPS are non-destructive, powerful methods for characterizing interfaces and for providing chemical depth profiles of nanostructures, quantum membranes, and 2D layered materials.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ; ORCiD logo [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  2. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division. Advanced Light Source; Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Peter Grünberg Inst. PGI-6
  3. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany). Peter Grünberg Inst. PGI-6
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source. Chemical Sciences Division
  8. Synchrotron-SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)
  9. Synchrotron-SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France). Lab. of Physical Chemistry - Matter and Radiation (LCPMR)
  10. Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  11. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; SC0014697
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
APL Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Synchrotron-SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); LBNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Research Agency (ANR) (France)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; chemical analysis; semiconductors; X-ray diffraction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; wave mechanics; nanomaterials; heterojunctions; bipolar transistors
OSTI Identifier:
1461989
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1432107

Conti, G., Nemsak, S., Kuo, C. -T., Gehlmann, M., Conlon, C., Keqi, A., Rattanachata, A., Karslioglu, O., Mueller, J., Sethian, J., Bluhm, H., Rault, J. E., Rueff, J. P., Fang, H., Javey, A., and Fadley, C. S.. Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.5022379.
Conti, G., Nemsak, S., Kuo, C. -T., Gehlmann, M., Conlon, C., Keqi, A., Rattanachata, A., Karslioglu, O., Mueller, J., Sethian, J., Bluhm, H., Rault, J. E., Rueff, J. P., Fang, H., Javey, A., & Fadley, C. S.. Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5022379.
Conti, G., Nemsak, S., Kuo, C. -T., Gehlmann, M., Conlon, C., Keqi, A., Rattanachata, A., Karslioglu, O., Mueller, J., Sethian, J., Bluhm, H., Rault, J. E., Rueff, J. P., Fang, H., Javey, A., and Fadley, C. S.. 2018. "Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5022379. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461989.
@article{osti_1461989,
title = {Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy},
author = {Conti, G. and Nemsak, S. and Kuo, C. -T. and Gehlmann, M. and Conlon, C. and Keqi, A. and Rattanachata, A. and Karslioglu, O. and Mueller, J. and Sethian, J. and Bluhm, H. and Rault, J. E. and Rueff, J. P. and Fang, H. and Javey, A. and Fadley, C. S.},
abstractNote = {Free-standing nanoribbons of InAs quantum membranes (QMs) transferred onto a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror substrate are characterized by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPS) and by standing-wave HXPS (SW-HXPS). Information on the chemical composition and on the chemical states of the elements within the nanoribbons was obtained by HXPS and on the quantitative depth profiles by SW-HXPS. By comparing the experimental SW-HXPS rocking curves to x-ray optical calculations, the chemical depth profile of the InAs(QM) and its interfaces were quantitatively derived with ångström precision. We determined that (i) the exposure to air induced the formation of an InAsO4 layer on top of the stoichiometric InAs(QM); (ii) the top interface between the air-side InAsO4 and the InAs(QM) is not sharp, indicating that interdiffusion occurs between these two layers; (iii) the bottom interface between the InAs(QM) and the native oxide SiO2 on top of the (Si/Mo) substrate is abrupt. In addition, the valence band offset (VBO) between the InAs(QM) and the SiO2/(Si/Mo) substrate was determined by HXPS. The value of VBO = 0.2 ± 0.04 eV is in good agreement with literature results obtained by electrical characterization, giving a clear indication of the formation of a well-defined and abrupt InAs/SiO2 heterojunction. We have demonstrated that HXPS and SW-HXPS are non-destructive, powerful methods for characterizing interfaces and for providing chemical depth profiles of nanostructures, quantum membranes, and 2D layered materials.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5022379},
journal = {APL Materials},
number = 5,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}