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Title: Vertically oriented ZrO 2–TiO 2–Nb 2O 5–Al 2O 3 mixed nanopatterned bioceramics on Ti6Al7Nb implant assessed by laser spallation technique

Recently, reports on the fabrication of nonstructural configuration have generated scientific interest due to increased awareness of the oxide nanotubes in the biomedical implant field and other industrial approaches. In this paper, highly ordered ZrO 2–TiO 2–Nb 2O 5–Al 2O 3 nanotube arrays were grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a zirconium layer on titanium-niobium alloy implant (IMPTi67) and succeeding anodic oxidation at a constant voltage (60 V) with exposure times ranging from 30 to 300 min. To crystallize the resulting mixed oxide nanotubes, heat treatment was also applied. The nanotubes were placed in an atmospheric furnace at temperatures ranging from 450 to 800 °C for 2 h. This treatment provided a morphological evolution was strongly influenced by the anodization time, where highly aligned bamboo-shaped oxide nanotubes (161 ± 44 nm in inside diameter and ~1 μm in length) were formed after 300 min of anodization. After annealing at temperature below 500 °C, the nano-array configuration remained stable and the average inner diameter decreased to around 40 nm. The effects of anodically fabrication time on the adhesion strength of four-phase multilayered mixed oxide nanotubes on anodized Zr/IMPTi67 surfaces assed by microscratch analysis. From the results, increasing the annealing temperaturemore » further to 800 °C fully destroyed the nanotubes and consequently the tubular arrangement was converted to a coarse grain structure. It was revealed that annealing at 450 °C for 2 h was the optimum conditions for stable nanotubular array generation, where the highest adhesion strength (shifted from 2595.59 to 2640.12 mN), microhardness (372 HV) and hydrophilicity (15 ± 1°) were recorded. It is notify that the adhesion strength of highly ordered mixed nanotubes was remarkably decreased after thermal treatment at 800 °C (1817.51 mN). Through the laser spallation analysis, the intrinsic adhesion strength of the Zr/IMPTi67 interface was found to be at 63 MPa, while the first stages of failure occurred at a stress state of 35 MPa. The adhesion of the film with the tubular structure proved to have a significantly larger adhesion strength of 246 MPa for the complete failure and 203 MPa for incipient stages of spallation. Finally, the considered surface modification can be an effective step in determining the interface strength between biomedical implants and the nanostructured coatings.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [5]
  1. Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Faculty of Engineering. Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing
  2. Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Faculty of Engineering. Center of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  3. Islamic Azad Univ., Najafabad (Iran). Advanced Materials Research Center. Materials Engineering Dept.
  4. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physics Division
  5. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  6. Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Medical Microbiology. Faculty of Medicine
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-731727
Journal ID: ISSN 0925-8388; 846885
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; PG130-2015B; RP035A-15AET
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 721; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-8388
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of Malaya (Malaysia)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; surface modification; mixed oxide nanotubes; PVD magnetron sputtering; adhesion strength; laser spallation technique; Ti–6Al–7Nb implant
OSTI Identifier:
1461745

Rafieerad, A. R., Bushroa, A. R., Nasiri-Tabrizi, B., Crum, R., Gamez, C., Vadivelu, J., and Gupta, V.. Vertically oriented ZrO2–TiO2–Nb2O5–Al2O3 mixed nanopatterned bioceramics on Ti6Al7Nb implant assessed by laser spallation technique. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.05.225.
Rafieerad, A. R., Bushroa, A. R., Nasiri-Tabrizi, B., Crum, R., Gamez, C., Vadivelu, J., & Gupta, V.. Vertically oriented ZrO2–TiO2–Nb2O5–Al2O3 mixed nanopatterned bioceramics on Ti6Al7Nb implant assessed by laser spallation technique. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.05.225.
Rafieerad, A. R., Bushroa, A. R., Nasiri-Tabrizi, B., Crum, R., Gamez, C., Vadivelu, J., and Gupta, V.. 2017. "Vertically oriented ZrO2–TiO2–Nb2O5–Al2O3 mixed nanopatterned bioceramics on Ti6Al7Nb implant assessed by laser spallation technique". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.05.225. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461745.
@article{osti_1461745,
title = {Vertically oriented ZrO2–TiO2–Nb2O5–Al2O3 mixed nanopatterned bioceramics on Ti6Al7Nb implant assessed by laser spallation technique},
author = {Rafieerad, A. R. and Bushroa, A. R. and Nasiri-Tabrizi, B. and Crum, R. and Gamez, C. and Vadivelu, J. and Gupta, V.},
abstractNote = {Recently, reports on the fabrication of nonstructural configuration have generated scientific interest due to increased awareness of the oxide nanotubes in the biomedical implant field and other industrial approaches. In this paper, highly ordered ZrO2–TiO2–Nb2O5–Al2O3 nanotube arrays were grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a zirconium layer on titanium-niobium alloy implant (IMPTi67) and succeeding anodic oxidation at a constant voltage (60 V) with exposure times ranging from 30 to 300 min. To crystallize the resulting mixed oxide nanotubes, heat treatment was also applied. The nanotubes were placed in an atmospheric furnace at temperatures ranging from 450 to 800 °C for 2 h. This treatment provided a morphological evolution was strongly influenced by the anodization time, where highly aligned bamboo-shaped oxide nanotubes (161 ± 44 nm in inside diameter and ~1 μm in length) were formed after 300 min of anodization. After annealing at temperature below 500 °C, the nano-array configuration remained stable and the average inner diameter decreased to around 40 nm. The effects of anodically fabrication time on the adhesion strength of four-phase multilayered mixed oxide nanotubes on anodized Zr/IMPTi67 surfaces assed by microscratch analysis. From the results, increasing the annealing temperature further to 800 °C fully destroyed the nanotubes and consequently the tubular arrangement was converted to a coarse grain structure. It was revealed that annealing at 450 °C for 2 h was the optimum conditions for stable nanotubular array generation, where the highest adhesion strength (shifted from 2595.59 to 2640.12 mN), microhardness (372 HV) and hydrophilicity (15 ± 1°) were recorded. It is notify that the adhesion strength of highly ordered mixed nanotubes was remarkably decreased after thermal treatment at 800 °C (1817.51 mN). Through the laser spallation analysis, the intrinsic adhesion strength of the Zr/IMPTi67 interface was found to be at 63 MPa, while the first stages of failure occurred at a stress state of 35 MPa. The adhesion of the film with the tubular structure proved to have a significantly larger adhesion strength of 246 MPa for the complete failure and 203 MPa for incipient stages of spallation. Finally, the considered surface modification can be an effective step in determining the interface strength between biomedical implants and the nanostructured coatings.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.05.225},
journal = {Journal of Alloys and Compounds},
number = ,
volume = 721,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}