skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Rationalization of solidification mechanism of Nd–Fe–B magnets during laser directed-energy deposition [Rationalization of solidification mechanism of neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained after laser directed-energy deposition process]

Abstract

Here, near-net fabrication techniques are highly beneficial to minimize rare earth metal usage to fabricate dense fully functional magnets. In this study, feasibility of using the directed-energy deposition technique for fabrication of magnets is evaluated. The results show that despite the ability to fabricate highly reactive materials in the laser deposition process, the magnetic coercivity and remanence of the hard magnets is significantly reduced. X-ray powder diffraction in conjunction with electron microscopy showed that the material experienced a primary Nd 2Fe 17B x solidification. Consequently, the absence of the hard magnetic phase resulted in deterioration of the build properties.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Florida Polytechnic Univ., Lakeland, FL (United States)
  4. Arnold Magnetic Technologies Corp., Rochester, NY (United States); Magnetics & Materials LLC, Honeoye, NY (United States)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1461738
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-692689
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461; 820445
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 53; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Nd-Fe-B hard magnets; Laser additive manufacturing; Nd2Fe14B

Citation Formats

Sridharan, Niyanth, Cakmak, Ercan, List, Fred A., Ucar, Huseyin, Constantinides, Steve, Babu, S. S., McCall, S. K., and Paranthaman, M. Parans. Rationalization of solidification mechanism of Nd–Fe–B magnets during laser directed-energy deposition [Rationalization of solidification mechanism of neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained after laser directed-energy deposition process]. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-2178-7.
Sridharan, Niyanth, Cakmak, Ercan, List, Fred A., Ucar, Huseyin, Constantinides, Steve, Babu, S. S., McCall, S. K., & Paranthaman, M. Parans. Rationalization of solidification mechanism of Nd–Fe–B magnets during laser directed-energy deposition [Rationalization of solidification mechanism of neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained after laser directed-energy deposition process]. United States. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-2178-7.
Sridharan, Niyanth, Cakmak, Ercan, List, Fred A., Ucar, Huseyin, Constantinides, Steve, Babu, S. S., McCall, S. K., and Paranthaman, M. Parans. Wed . "Rationalization of solidification mechanism of Nd–Fe–B magnets during laser directed-energy deposition [Rationalization of solidification mechanism of neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained after laser directed-energy deposition process]". United States. doi:10.1007/s10853-018-2178-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461738.
@article{osti_1461738,
title = {Rationalization of solidification mechanism of Nd–Fe–B magnets during laser directed-energy deposition [Rationalization of solidification mechanism of neodymium-iron-boron magnets obtained after laser directed-energy deposition process]},
author = {Sridharan, Niyanth and Cakmak, Ercan and List, Fred A. and Ucar, Huseyin and Constantinides, Steve and Babu, S. S. and McCall, S. K. and Paranthaman, M. Parans},
abstractNote = {Here, near-net fabrication techniques are highly beneficial to minimize rare earth metal usage to fabricate dense fully functional magnets. In this study, feasibility of using the directed-energy deposition technique for fabrication of magnets is evaluated. The results show that despite the ability to fabricate highly reactive materials in the laser deposition process, the magnetic coercivity and remanence of the hard magnets is significantly reduced. X-ray powder diffraction in conjunction with electron microscopy showed that the material experienced a primary Nd2Fe17Bx solidification. Consequently, the absence of the hard magnetic phase resulted in deterioration of the build properties.},
doi = {10.1007/s10853-018-2178-7},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science},
number = 11,
volume = 53,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Shows the magnetization curve of the powder and the sample. Note the sharp drop in coercivity and remanence of the magnets after processing.

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Undercooling-dependent solidification behavior of levitated Nd14Fe79B7 alloy droplets
journal, June 2002


Phase selection during solidification of peritectic alloys
journal, October 1996


Heat treatment of metastable Nd2Fe17Bx phase formed from undercooled melt of Nd–Fe–B alloys
journal, December 2006

  • Ozawa, S.; Kuribayashi, K.; Hirosawa, S.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2386943

Observation of a metastable phase during solidification of undercooled Nd–Fe–B alloy melts by in situ diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation
journal, September 2004

  • Volkmann, Thomas; Strohmenger, Jörn; Gao, Jianrong
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1794373

Metastable solidification of NdFeB alloys by drop-tube processing
journal, September 2001

  • Gao, Jianrong; Volkmann, Th.; Herlach, D. M.
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 16, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1557/JMR.2001.0351

Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets
journal, October 2016

  • Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep36212

Phase formation in undercooled NdFeB alloy droplets
journal, September 2001


Pr‐Fe and Nd‐Fe‐based materials: A new class of high‐performance permanent magnets (invited)
journal, March 1984

  • Croat, J. J.; Herbst, J. F.; Lee, R. W.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.333571

New material for permanent magnets on a base of Nd and Fe (invited)
journal, March 1984

  • Sagawa, M.; Fujimura, S.; Togawa, N.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.333572

Effect of process on the magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet
journal, April 2006


Overview of Nd–Fe–B magnets and coercivity (invited)
journal, January 1996

  • Fidler, J.; Schrefl, T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.361565

Thermodynamic and kinetic models for describing microstructure evolution during joining of metals and alloys
journal, November 2009


Additional ferromagnetic phases in the FeNdB system and the effect of a 600°C annealing
journal, July 1989

  • Schneider, Gerhard; Landgraf, Fernando J. G.; Missell, Frank P.
  • Journal of the Less Common Metals, Vol. 153, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/0022-5088(89)90543-2

Net Shape 3D Printed NdFeB Permanent Magnet : Net Shape 3D Printed NdFeB Permanent Magnet
journal, April 2017

  • Jaćimović, Jaćim; Binda, Federico; Herrmann, Lorenz G.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700098

Summary of magnet development in the past two years
journal, September 1990

  • Stadelmaier, H. H.
  • Journal of Materials Engineering, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02834494

Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms
journal, May 2012


Additive manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets: Prospects and challenges
journal, July 2017


Perspectives on Permanent Magnetic Materials for Energy Conversion and Power Generation
journal, July 2012

  • Lewis, Laura H.; Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 44, Issue S1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-012-1278-2

Crystallization of Nd2Fe17Bx from stoichiometric melt composition
journal, May 2007


Correlation between solidification parameters and weld microstructures
journal, January 1989


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.