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Title: Storm-driven particulate organic matter flux connects a tidal tributary floodplain wetland, mainstem river, and estuary

Abstract

The transport of terrestrial plant matter into coastal waters is important to regional and global biogeochemical cycles, and methods for assessing and predicting fluxes in such dynamic environments are needed. We investigated the hypothesis that upon reconnection of a floodplain wetland to its mainstem river, organic matter produced in the wetland would reach other parts of the ecosystem. If so, we can infer that the organic matter would ultimately become a source for the food web in the mainstem river and estuary. To accomplish this, we adapted numerical hydrodynamic and transport modeling methods to estimate the mass of particulate organic matter (POM) derived from the annually senescent aboveground parts of herbaceous marsh plants (H–POM). The Finite–Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), parameterized with flow, tide, and aboveground biomass data, simulated H–POM mobilization from fluid shear stress during tidal exchange, flooding, and variable river flow; entrainment into the water column; transport via channel and overland flow; and entrapment when wetted surfaces dry. We examined export from a recently reconnected, restoring tidal emergent marsh on the Grays River, a tributary to the Columbia River estuary. Modeling indicated that hydrologically reconnecting 65 ha at the site resulted in export of about 96 × 10more » 3 kg of H–POM, primarily during pulsed storm flooding events in autumn and early winter. This exported mass amounted to about 19% of the summer peak aboveground biomass measured at the site. Of that 19%, about 48% (47 × 10 3 kg) was deposited downstream in the Grays River and floodplain wetlands, and the remaining 52% (50 × 10 3 kg) passed the confluence of the Grays River and the mainstem estuary located about 7 km from the study site. The colonization of the restoring study site largely by nonnative Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) may have resulted in 18–28% lower H–POM mobilization than typical marsh plant communities on this floodplain, based on estimates from regional studies of marshes dominated by less recalcitrant species. Here, we concluded that restored floodplain wetlands can contribute significant amounts of organic matter to the estuarine ecosystem and thereby contribute to the restoration of historical trophic structure.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hammond, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1461672
Report Number(s):
[PNNL-SA-135237]
[Journal ID: ISSN 1051-0761]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-76RL01830]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Ecological Applications
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 6]; Journal ID: ISSN 1051-0761
Publisher:
Ecological Society of America
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; allochthonous organic matter flux; dike breach; H‐POM; hydrodynamic and transport modeling; lateral connectivity; marsh detritus; particulate organic matter; restoration; riparian zone; spatial subsidy; terrestrial‐aquatic interface; tidal freshwater

Citation Formats

Thom, Ronald M., Breithaupt, Stephen A., Diefenderfer, Heida L., Borde, Amy B., Roegner, G. Curtis, Johnson, Gary E., and Woodruff, Dana L. Storm-driven particulate organic matter flux connects a tidal tributary floodplain wetland, mainstem river, and estuary. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/eap.1759.
Thom, Ronald M., Breithaupt, Stephen A., Diefenderfer, Heida L., Borde, Amy B., Roegner, G. Curtis, Johnson, Gary E., & Woodruff, Dana L. Storm-driven particulate organic matter flux connects a tidal tributary floodplain wetland, mainstem river, and estuary. United States. doi:10.1002/eap.1759.
Thom, Ronald M., Breithaupt, Stephen A., Diefenderfer, Heida L., Borde, Amy B., Roegner, G. Curtis, Johnson, Gary E., and Woodruff, Dana L. Mon . "Storm-driven particulate organic matter flux connects a tidal tributary floodplain wetland, mainstem river, and estuary". United States. doi:10.1002/eap.1759. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461672.
@article{osti_1461672,
title = {Storm-driven particulate organic matter flux connects a tidal tributary floodplain wetland, mainstem river, and estuary},
author = {Thom, Ronald M. and Breithaupt, Stephen A. and Diefenderfer, Heida L. and Borde, Amy B. and Roegner, G. Curtis and Johnson, Gary E. and Woodruff, Dana L.},
abstractNote = {The transport of terrestrial plant matter into coastal waters is important to regional and global biogeochemical cycles, and methods for assessing and predicting fluxes in such dynamic environments are needed. We investigated the hypothesis that upon reconnection of a floodplain wetland to its mainstem river, organic matter produced in the wetland would reach other parts of the ecosystem. If so, we can infer that the organic matter would ultimately become a source for the food web in the mainstem river and estuary. To accomplish this, we adapted numerical hydrodynamic and transport modeling methods to estimate the mass of particulate organic matter (POM) derived from the annually senescent aboveground parts of herbaceous marsh plants (H–POM). The Finite–Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), parameterized with flow, tide, and aboveground biomass data, simulated H–POM mobilization from fluid shear stress during tidal exchange, flooding, and variable river flow; entrainment into the water column; transport via channel and overland flow; and entrapment when wetted surfaces dry. We examined export from a recently reconnected, restoring tidal emergent marsh on the Grays River, a tributary to the Columbia River estuary. Modeling indicated that hydrologically reconnecting 65 ha at the site resulted in export of about 96 × 103 kg of H–POM, primarily during pulsed storm flooding events in autumn and early winter. This exported mass amounted to about 19% of the summer peak aboveground biomass measured at the site. Of that 19%, about 48% (47 × 103 kg) was deposited downstream in the Grays River and floodplain wetlands, and the remaining 52% (50 × 103 kg) passed the confluence of the Grays River and the mainstem estuary located about 7 km from the study site. The colonization of the restoring study site largely by nonnative Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) may have resulted in 18–28% lower H–POM mobilization than typical marsh plant communities on this floodplain, based on estimates from regional studies of marshes dominated by less recalcitrant species. Here, we concluded that restored floodplain wetlands can contribute significant amounts of organic matter to the estuarine ecosystem and thereby contribute to the restoration of historical trophic structure.},
doi = {10.1002/eap.1759},
journal = {Ecological Applications},
number = [6],
volume = [28],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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Habitat change in the lower Columbia River estuary, 1870–2009
journal, June 2017


Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs
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Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: I. Along-Channel Water Level Variations, Pacific Ocean to Bonneville Dam
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Geographic Signatures of North American West Coast Estuaries
journal, December 2000

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  • Estuaries, Vol. 23, Issue 6
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Variability in Isotopic (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 34 S) Composition of Organic Matter Contributing to Detritus-Based Food Webs of the Columbia River Estuary
journal, January 2011

  • Maier, Greer O.; Toft, Jason D.; Simenstad, Charles A.
  • Northwest Science, Vol. 85, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3955/046.085.0104

Decomposition of maize leaves and grasses in restored agricultural streams
journal, September 2012

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  • Freshwater Science, Vol. 31, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1899/11-095.1

Consumption processes and food web structure in the Columbia River Estuary
journal, January 1990

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  • Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 25, Issue 1-4
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The outwelling hypothesis and North Inlet, South Carolina
journal, January 1986

  • Dame, R.; Chrzanowski, T.; Bildstein, K.
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 33
  • DOI: 10.3354/meps033217

The Origins of Detritus in Georgia Salt Marsh Estuaries
journal, January 1977


Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems
journal, December 2013


Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat
journal, January 2003


Connectivity and biocomplexity in waterbodies of riverine floodplains
journal, April 2002


Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary
journal, January 1990

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  • Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 25, Issue 1-4
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Estuarine Productivity
journal, October 1978


The tidal exchange of Callianassa californiensis (Crustacea, Decapoda) larvae between the ocean and the Salmon River estuary, Oregon
journal, May 1982


Temporal land cover analysis for net ecosystem improvement
journal, January 2013


Organic carbon sources and sinks in San Francisco Bay: variability induced by river flow
journal, January 1993

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Productivity, Detritus Flux, and Nutrient Cycling in a Carex lyngbyei Tidal Marsh
journal, September 1983

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  • Estuaries, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.2307/1351514

THE ECOLOGY OF INTERFACES:Riparian Zones
journal, November 1997


The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation
journal, October 2013

  • Duarte, Carlos M.; Losada, Iñigo J.; Hendriks, Iris E.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1970

The Role of Marsh-Derived Macrodetritus to the Food Webs of Juvenile Chinook Salmon in a Large Altered Estuary
journal, August 2009


Terrigenous dissolved organic matter along an estuarine gradient and its flux to the coastal ocean
journal, December 2000


Introduction
journal, September 1923

  • Summerhayes, V. S.; Elton, C. S.
  • The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2307/2255863

Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve Global Carbon Storage: Reaping What We Sow
journal, March 2011


Dependence of Fishery Species on Salt Marshes: The Role of Food and Refuge
journal, December 1984

  • Boesch, Donald F.; Turner, R. Eugene
  • Estuaries, Vol. 7, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.2307/1351627

Organic carbon transport in the Columbia River
journal, December 1981

  • Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, Stanley V.; Kilho Park, P.
  • Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0302-3524(81)80046-1

Exports of Organic Carbon in British Rivers
journal, March 1997


Wetland-driven shifts in suspended particulate organic matter composition of the Hudson River estuary, New York
journal, June 2010

  • Hunsinger, Glendon B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Findlay, Stuart E. G.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.4.1653

Climatic and Tidal Forcing of Hydrography and Chlorophyll Concentrations in the Columbia River Estuary
journal, September 2010

  • Roegner, G. Curtis; Seaton, Charles; Baptista, António M.
  • Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 34, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12237-010-9340-z

The role of effective discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by small, mountainous river systems
journal, November 2009

  • Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñ i., Miguel A.; Hatten, Jeff A.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0161

Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources
journal, June 2002

  • Sobczak, W. V.; Cloern, J. E.; Jassby, A. D.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 99, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.122614399

Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones
journal, April 2016


A particle conveyor belt process in the Columbia River estuary: Evidence from chlorophylla and particulate organic carbon
journal, December 2004

  • Small, Lawrence F.; Prahl, Fredrick G.
  • Estuaries, Vol. 27, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02803426

TOWARD AN INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE AND FOOD WEB ECOLOGY:The Dynamics of Spatially Subsidized Food Webs
journal, November 1997


Nature's Pulsing Paradigm
journal, December 1995

  • Odum, William E.; Odum, Eugene P.; Odum, Howard T.
  • Estuaries, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.2307/1352375

Energy Flow in the Salt Marsh Ecosystem of Georgia
journal, October 1962


Evidence‐based evaluation of the cumulative effects of ecosystem restoration
journal, March 2016

  • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.
  • Ecosphere, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1242

Hydraulic geometry and microtopography of tidal freshwater forested wetlands and implications for restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.
journal, January 2008

  • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, André M.; Borde, Amy B.
  • Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, Vol. 8, Issue 2-4
  • DOI: 10.2478/v10104-009-0027-7

Stable isotopes and oceanographic modeling reveal spatial and trophic connectivity among terrestrial, estuarine, and marine environments
journal, August 2015

  • Conway-Cranos, L.; Kiffney, P.; Banas, N.
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 533
  • DOI: 10.3354/meps11318

Transport of molluscan larvae through a shallow estuary
journal, September 2000


A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs
journal, March 2011

  • Diefenderfer, H. L.; Thom, R. M.; Johnson, G. E.
  • Ecological Restoration, Vol. 29, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.3368/er.29.1-2.111

Application of the diminishing returns concept in the hydroecologic restoration of riverscapes
journal, March 2012

  • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, John R.
  • Landscape Ecology, Vol. 27, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10980-012-9713-8

Forensic Hydrodynamic Evaluation Following the Restoration of a Tidal Freshwater Wetlands
conference, April 2012

  • Breithaupt, Stephen; Khangaonkar, Tarang
  • 10th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (2007)
  • DOI: 10.1061/40990(324)34

Primary Production in Flowing Waters1
journal, April 1956


Watershed Export Events and Ecosystem Responses in the Mission–Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Texas
journal, August 2012


Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs
journal, November 2012

  • Naiman, R. J.; Alldredge, J. R.; Beauchamp, D. A.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1213408109

Decomposition Trends of Five Plant Litter Types in Mitigated and Reference Wetlands in West Virginia, USA
journal, May 2011


Detritus and Juvenile Salmon Production in the Nanaimo Estuary: I. Production and Feeding Rates of Juvenile Chum Salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta )
journal, May 1979

  • Healey, M. C.
  • Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 36, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1139/f79-072

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Temporal land cover analysis for net ecosystem improvement
    journal, January 2013


    Productivity, Detritus Flux, and Nutrient Cycling in a Carex lyngbyei Tidal Marsh
    journal, September 1983

    • Kistritz, R. U.; Hall, K. J.; Yesaki, I.
    • Estuaries, Vol. 6, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.2307/1351514

    Hydraulic geometry and microtopography of tidal freshwater forested wetlands and implications for restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.
    journal, January 2008

    • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, André M.; Borde, Amy B.
    • Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, Vol. 8, Issue 2-4
    • DOI: 10.2478/v10104-009-0027-7

    Transport of molluscan larvae through a shallow estuary
    journal, September 2000


    Decomposition Trends of Five Plant Litter Types in Mitigated and Reference Wetlands in West Virginia, USA
    journal, May 2011


    Application of the diminishing returns concept in the hydroecologic restoration of riverscapes
    journal, March 2012

    • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, John R.
    • Landscape Ecology, Vol. 27, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10980-012-9713-8

    Stable isotopes and oceanographic modeling reveal spatial and trophic connectivity among terrestrial, estuarine, and marine environments
    journal, August 2015

    • Conway-Cranos, L.; Kiffney, P.; Banas, N.
    • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 533
    • DOI: 10.3354/meps11318

    Wetland-driven shifts in suspended particulate organic matter composition of the Hudson River estuary, New York
    journal, June 2010

    • Hunsinger, Glendon B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Findlay, Stuart E. G.
    • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.4.1653

    Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs
    journal, November 2012

    • Naiman, R. J.; Alldredge, J. R.; Beauchamp, D. A.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1213408109

    Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: I. Along-Channel Water Level Variations, Pacific Ocean to Bonneville Dam
    journal, June 2014

    • Jay, David A.; Leffler, Keith; Diefenderfer, Heida L.
    • Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 38, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12237-014-9819-0

    Habitat change in the lower Columbia River estuary, 1870–2009
    journal, June 2017


    Climatic and Tidal Forcing of Hydrography and Chlorophyll Concentrations in the Columbia River Estuary
    journal, September 2010

    • Roegner, G. Curtis; Seaton, Charles; Baptista, António M.
    • Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 34, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12237-010-9340-z

    Primary Production in Flowing Waters1
    journal, April 1956


    Forensic Hydrodynamic Evaluation Following the Restoration of a Tidal Freshwater Wetlands
    conference, April 2012

    • Breithaupt, Stephen; Khangaonkar, Tarang
    • 10th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (2007)
    • DOI: 10.1061/40990(324)34

    The Role of Marsh-Derived Macrodetritus to the Food Webs of Juvenile Chinook Salmon in a Large Altered Estuary
    journal, August 2009


    Introduction
    journal, September 1923

    • Summerhayes, V. S.; Elton, C. S.
    • The Journal of Ecology, Vol. 11, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2307/2255863

    Watershed Export Events and Ecosystem Responses in the Mission–Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Texas
    journal, August 2012


    Geographic Signatures of North American West Coast Estuaries
    journal, December 2000

    • Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan
    • Estuaries, Vol. 23, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.2307/1352998

    Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve Global Carbon Storage: Reaping What We Sow
    journal, March 2011


    Energy Flow in the Salt Marsh Ecosystem of Georgia
    journal, October 1962


    Evidence‐based evaluation of the cumulative effects of ecosystem restoration
    journal, March 2016

    • Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.
    • Ecosphere, Vol. 7, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1242

    The role of effective discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by small, mountainous river systems
    journal, November 2009

    • Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñ i., Miguel A.; Hatten, Jeff A.
    • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0161

    A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs
    journal, March 2011

    • Diefenderfer, H. L.; Thom, R. M.; Johnson, G. E.
    • Ecological Restoration, Vol. 29, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.3368/er.29.1-2.111

    Estuarine Productivity
    journal, October 1978


    TOWARD AN INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE AND FOOD WEB ECOLOGY:The Dynamics of Spatially Subsidized Food Webs
    journal, November 1997


    The outwelling hypothesis and North Inlet, South Carolina
    journal, January 1986

    • Dame, R.; Chrzanowski, T.; Bildstein, K.
    • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 33
    • DOI: 10.3354/meps033217

    Decomposition of maize leaves and grasses in restored agricultural streams
    journal, September 2012

    • Griffiths, Natalie A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Roley, Sarah S.
    • Freshwater Science, Vol. 31, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1899/11-095.1

    Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs
    journal, January 2001

    • Nakano, S.; Murakami, M.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 98, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.98.1.166

    Connectivity and biocomplexity in waterbodies of riverine floodplains
    journal, April 2002


    Detritus and Juvenile Salmon Production in the Nanaimo Estuary: II. Meiofauna Available as Food to Juvenile Chum Salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta )
    journal, May 1979

    • Sibert, J. R.
    • Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 36, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1139/f79-073

    Detritus and Juvenile Salmon Production in the Nanaimo Estuary: I. Production and Feeding Rates of Juvenile Chum Salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta )
    journal, May 1979

    • Healey, M. C.
    • Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 36, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1139/f79-072

    Nature's Pulsing Paradigm
    journal, December 1995

    • Odum, William E.; Odum, Eugene P.; Odum, Howard T.
    • Estuaries, Vol. 18, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.2307/1352375

    Variability in Isotopic (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 34 S) Composition of Organic Matter Contributing to Detritus-Based Food Webs of the Columbia River Estuary
    journal, January 2011

    • Maier, Greer O.; Toft, Jason D.; Simenstad, Charles A.
    • Northwest Science, Vol. 85, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3955/046.085.0104

    Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones
    journal, April 2016


    Organic carbon sources and sinks in San Francisco Bay: variability induced by river flow
    journal, January 1993

    • Jassby, Ad; Cloern, Je; Powell, Tm
    • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 95
    • DOI: 10.3354/meps095039

    THE ECOLOGY OF INTERFACES:Riparian Zones
    journal, November 1997


    Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources
    journal, June 2002

    • Sobczak, W. V.; Cloern, J. E.; Jassby, A. D.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 99, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.122614399

    The Origins of Detritus in Georgia Salt Marsh Estuaries
    journal, January 1977


    Dependence of Fishery Species on Salt Marshes: The Role of Food and Refuge
    journal, December 1984

    • Boesch, Donald F.; Turner, R. Eugene
    • Estuaries, Vol. 7, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.2307/1351627

    The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation
    journal, October 2013

    • Duarte, Carlos M.; Losada, Iñigo J.; Hendriks, Iris E.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1970

    Functional Equivalency Trajectories of the Restored Gog-Le-Hi-Te Estuarine Wetland
    journal, February 1996

    • Simenstad, Charles A.; Thom, Ronald M.
    • Ecological Applications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.2307/2269551

    Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems
    journal, December 2013


    δ¹³C evidence of the origins and fates of organic carbon in estuarine and near-shore food webs
    journal, January 1985

    • Simenstad, Ca; Wissmar, Rc
    • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 22
    • DOI: 10.3354/meps022141