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Title: Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones

Abstract

This study examines Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves observed by dual polarization radar in several baroclinic systems during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) field campaign along the windward side of the Olympic Mountains and in a strong stationary frontal zone in Iowa during the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) field campaign. While KH waves develop regardless of the presence or absence of mountainous terrain, this study indicates that the large-scale flow can interact with the windward side of a mountain range in such a way to promote development of KH waves and to alter their physical structure (i.e., orientation and amplitude). OLYMPEX sampled numerous instances of KH waves in precipitating clouds, and this study examines their effects on microphysical processes above, near, and below the melting layer. The dual-polarization radar data indicate that KH waves above the melting layer promote aggregation. KH waves centered in the melting layer produce the most notable signatures in dual-polarization variables, with the patterns suggesting that the KH waves promote both riming and aggregation. Both above and near the melting layer ice particles show no preferred orientation likely due to tumbling in turbulent air motions. KH waves below the melting layer facilitate the generation of large drops viamore » coalescence and/or vapor deposition, increasing mean drop size and rain rate by only slight amounts in the OLYMPEX storms.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington
  2. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1461611
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1578032
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-130990
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4928
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Journal Volume: 75 Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4928
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Extratropical cyclones; Precipitation; Cloud microphysics; Orographic effects; Radars/Radar observations; Surface observations

Citation Formats

Barnes, Hannah C., Zagrodnik, Joseph P., McMurdie, Lynn A., Rowe, Angela K., and Houze, Robert A. Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1.
Barnes, Hannah C., Zagrodnik, Joseph P., McMurdie, Lynn A., Rowe, Angela K., & Houze, Robert A. Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones. United States. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1.
Barnes, Hannah C., Zagrodnik, Joseph P., McMurdie, Lynn A., Rowe, Angela K., and Houze, Robert A. Wed . "Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones". United States. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1.
@article{osti_1461611,
title = {Kelvin–Helmholtz Waves in Precipitating Midlatitude Cyclones},
author = {Barnes, Hannah C. and Zagrodnik, Joseph P. and McMurdie, Lynn A. and Rowe, Angela K. and Houze, Robert A.},
abstractNote = {This study examines Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves observed by dual polarization radar in several baroclinic systems during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) field campaign along the windward side of the Olympic Mountains and in a strong stationary frontal zone in Iowa during the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) field campaign. While KH waves develop regardless of the presence or absence of mountainous terrain, this study indicates that the large-scale flow can interact with the windward side of a mountain range in such a way to promote development of KH waves and to alter their physical structure (i.e., orientation and amplitude). OLYMPEX sampled numerous instances of KH waves in precipitating clouds, and this study examines their effects on microphysical processes above, near, and below the melting layer. The dual-polarization radar data indicate that KH waves above the melting layer promote aggregation. KH waves centered in the melting layer produce the most notable signatures in dual-polarization variables, with the patterns suggesting that the KH waves promote both riming and aggregation. Both above and near the melting layer ice particles show no preferred orientation likely due to tumbling in turbulent air motions. KH waves below the melting layer facilitate the generation of large drops via coalescence and/or vapor deposition, increasing mean drop size and rain rate by only slight amounts in the OLYMPEX storms.},
doi = {10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1},
journal = {Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences},
number = 8,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0365.1

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