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Title: Multimodal spectromicroscopy of monolayer WS2 enabled by ultra-clean van der Waals epitaxy

Abstract

Van der Waals epitaxy enables the integration of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides with other layered materials to form heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces. However, the ability to fully utilize and understand these materials using surface science techniques such as angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) requires low defect, large area, epitaxial coverage with ultra-clean interfaces. We have developed a chemical vapor deposition van der Waals epitaxy growth process where the metal and chalcogen sources are separated such that growth times can be extended significantly to yield high coverage while minimizing surface contamination. We also demonstrate the growth of high quality 2D WS2 over large areas on graphene. The as-grown vertical heterostructures are exceptionally clean as demonstrated by ARPES, STM and spatially resolved photoluminescence mapping. With these correlated techniques we are able to relate defect density to electronic band structure and, ultimately, optical properties. We find that our synthetic approach provides ultra-clean, low defect density (~1012 cm-2), ~10 μm large WS2 monolayer crystals, with an electronic band structure and valence band effective masses that perfectly match the theoretical prediction for pristine WS2.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). The Molecular Foundry
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  3. Technical Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Inst. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Scientific User Facilities Division; Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1461592
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1465470
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; P2SKP2_171770
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
2D Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2053-1583
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; transition metal dichalcogenides; TMD; TMDC; chemical vapor deposition; effective mass; exciton

Citation Formats

Kastl, C., Chen, C. T., Koch, R. J., Schuler, B., Kuykendall, T. R., Bostwick, A., Jozwiak, C., Seyller, T., Rotenberg, E., Weber-Bargioni, A., Aloni, S., and Schwartzberg, A. M. Multimodal spectromicroscopy of monolayer WS2 enabled by ultra-clean van der Waals epitaxy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/2053-1583/aad21c.
Kastl, C., Chen, C. T., Koch, R. J., Schuler, B., Kuykendall, T. R., Bostwick, A., Jozwiak, C., Seyller, T., Rotenberg, E., Weber-Bargioni, A., Aloni, S., & Schwartzberg, A. M. Multimodal spectromicroscopy of monolayer WS2 enabled by ultra-clean van der Waals epitaxy. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/aad21c
Kastl, C., Chen, C. T., Koch, R. J., Schuler, B., Kuykendall, T. R., Bostwick, A., Jozwiak, C., Seyller, T., Rotenberg, E., Weber-Bargioni, A., Aloni, S., and Schwartzberg, A. M. Wed . "Multimodal spectromicroscopy of monolayer WS2 enabled by ultra-clean van der Waals epitaxy". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/aad21c.
@article{osti_1461592,
title = {Multimodal spectromicroscopy of monolayer WS2 enabled by ultra-clean van der Waals epitaxy},
author = {Kastl, C. and Chen, C. T. and Koch, R. J. and Schuler, B. and Kuykendall, T. R. and Bostwick, A. and Jozwiak, C. and Seyller, T. and Rotenberg, E. and Weber-Bargioni, A. and Aloni, S. and Schwartzberg, A. M.},
abstractNote = {Van der Waals epitaxy enables the integration of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides with other layered materials to form heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces. However, the ability to fully utilize and understand these materials using surface science techniques such as angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) requires low defect, large area, epitaxial coverage with ultra-clean interfaces. We have developed a chemical vapor deposition van der Waals epitaxy growth process where the metal and chalcogen sources are separated such that growth times can be extended significantly to yield high coverage while minimizing surface contamination. We also demonstrate the growth of high quality 2D WS2 over large areas on graphene. The as-grown vertical heterostructures are exceptionally clean as demonstrated by ARPES, STM and spatially resolved photoluminescence mapping. With these correlated techniques we are able to relate defect density to electronic band structure and, ultimately, optical properties. We find that our synthetic approach provides ultra-clean, low defect density (~1012 cm-2), ~10 μm large WS2 monolayer crystals, with an electronic band structure and valence band effective masses that perfectly match the theoretical prediction for pristine WS2.},
doi = {10.1088/2053-1583/aad21c},
journal = {2D Materials},
number = 4,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/aad21c

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Cited by: 34 works
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