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Title: Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures

Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices. Understanding and controlling these distortions present a significant challenge in quantum device development. In this paper, we report synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction measurements combined with dynamical X-ray diffraction modeling that reveal lattice tilts with a depth-averaged value up to 0.04° and strain on the order of 10 –4 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Elastic distortions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modify the potential energy landscape in the 2DEG due to the generation of a deformation potential and an electric field through the piezoelectric effect. Finally, the stress induced by metal electrodes directly impacts the ability to control the positions of the potential minima where quantum dots form and the coupling between neighboring quantum dots.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [4] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
  3. Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Lab. for Solid State Physics
  4. Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). QuTech. Kavli Inst. of NanoScience
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-04ER46147; DGE-1256259; DMR-1121288; DMR-1720415
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; deformation potential; dynamical diffraction; GaAs quantum devices; piezoelectric effect; stress-induced distortions; X-ray nanobeams
OSTI Identifier:
1461309

Pateras, Anastasios, Park, Joonkyu, Ahn, Youngjun, Tilka, Jack A., Holt, Martin V., Reichl, Christian, Wegscheider, Werner, Baart, Timothy A., Dehollain, Juan Pablo, Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu, Vandersypen, Lieven M. K., and Evans, Paul G.. Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04603.
Pateras, Anastasios, Park, Joonkyu, Ahn, Youngjun, Tilka, Jack A., Holt, Martin V., Reichl, Christian, Wegscheider, Werner, Baart, Timothy A., Dehollain, Juan Pablo, Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu, Vandersypen, Lieven M. K., & Evans, Paul G.. Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04603.
Pateras, Anastasios, Park, Joonkyu, Ahn, Youngjun, Tilka, Jack A., Holt, Martin V., Reichl, Christian, Wegscheider, Werner, Baart, Timothy A., Dehollain, Juan Pablo, Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu, Vandersypen, Lieven M. K., and Evans, Paul G.. 2018. "Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04603. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461309.
@article{osti_1461309,
title = {Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures},
author = {Pateras, Anastasios and Park, Joonkyu and Ahn, Youngjun and Tilka, Jack A. and Holt, Martin V. and Reichl, Christian and Wegscheider, Werner and Baart, Timothy A. and Dehollain, Juan Pablo and Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu and Vandersypen, Lieven M. K. and Evans, Paul G.},
abstractNote = {Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices. Understanding and controlling these distortions present a significant challenge in quantum device development. In this paper, we report synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction measurements combined with dynamical X-ray diffraction modeling that reveal lattice tilts with a depth-averaged value up to 0.04° and strain on the order of 10–4 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Elastic distortions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modify the potential energy landscape in the 2DEG due to the generation of a deformation potential and an electric field through the piezoelectric effect. Finally, the stress induced by metal electrodes directly impacts the ability to control the positions of the potential minima where quantum dots form and the coupling between neighboring quantum dots.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04603},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}