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Title: Multi-hole gasoline direct injection:In-nozzle flow and primary breakup investigated in transparent nozzlesand with X-ray

This contribution describes the flow field inside modern gasoline direct-injection nozzles and sprays. Starting from the internal nozzle flow, results from transparent real-size nozzles are shown, where a significant vapor fraction even for cold fuel conditions is proven. Based on vapor fraction inside the nozzle, evidence for (super-)sonic flow conditions inside the nozzle is shown. The nozzle outlet velocity is determined by means of X-ray structure tracking velocimetry, which is a very powerful measurement technique to gain access to the very dense spray at the nozzle outlet. The X-ray velocities are compared to values that are determined by means of optical—phase Doppler anemometry/laser Doppler anemometry and Schlieren imaging—measurement techniques. By extrapolating the maximum droplet velocities found by laser Doppler anemometry in the more downstream regions of the spray to the nozzle outlet region, very similar velocities to the one derived from the X-ray measurements close to Bernoulli velocity are evaluated for typical gasoline direct-injection engine conditions. A third access to the nozzle outlet velocity is given by the derivation of penetration curves. The combination of vapor fractions and outlet velocities provides a measure for the initial spray momentum.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Friedrich-Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Engineering Thermodynamics (LTT) and Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-Ray Science Division
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); German Research Foundation (DFG); German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF). Industrial Community Research (IGF)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Gasoline direct-injection; spray; velocity measurements; X-ray, laser Doppler anemometry/phase Doppler anemometry; transparent nozzle
OSTI Identifier:
1461301

Bornschlegel, Sebastian, Conrad, Chris, Durst, Alexander, Wang, Jin, and Wensing, Michael. Multi-hole gasoline direct injection:In-nozzle flow and primary breakup investigated in transparent nozzlesand with X-ray. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1177/1468087417746860.
Bornschlegel, Sebastian, Conrad, Chris, Durst, Alexander, Wang, Jin, & Wensing, Michael. Multi-hole gasoline direct injection:In-nozzle flow and primary breakup investigated in transparent nozzlesand with X-ray. United States. doi:10.1177/1468087417746860.
Bornschlegel, Sebastian, Conrad, Chris, Durst, Alexander, Wang, Jin, and Wensing, Michael. 2017. "Multi-hole gasoline direct injection:In-nozzle flow and primary breakup investigated in transparent nozzlesand with X-ray". United States. doi:10.1177/1468087417746860. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461301.
@article{osti_1461301,
title = {Multi-hole gasoline direct injection:In-nozzle flow and primary breakup investigated in transparent nozzlesand with X-ray},
author = {Bornschlegel, Sebastian and Conrad, Chris and Durst, Alexander and Wang, Jin and Wensing, Michael},
abstractNote = {This contribution describes the flow field inside modern gasoline direct-injection nozzles and sprays. Starting from the internal nozzle flow, results from transparent real-size nozzles are shown, where a significant vapor fraction even for cold fuel conditions is proven. Based on vapor fraction inside the nozzle, evidence for (super-)sonic flow conditions inside the nozzle is shown. The nozzle outlet velocity is determined by means of X-ray structure tracking velocimetry, which is a very powerful measurement technique to gain access to the very dense spray at the nozzle outlet. The X-ray velocities are compared to values that are determined by means of optical—phase Doppler anemometry/laser Doppler anemometry and Schlieren imaging—measurement techniques. By extrapolating the maximum droplet velocities found by laser Doppler anemometry in the more downstream regions of the spray to the nozzle outlet region, very similar velocities to the one derived from the X-ray measurements close to Bernoulli velocity are evaluated for typical gasoline direct-injection engine conditions. A third access to the nozzle outlet velocity is given by the derivation of penetration curves. The combination of vapor fractions and outlet velocities provides a measure for the initial spray momentum.},
doi = {10.1177/1468087417746860},
journal = {International Journal of Engine Research},
number = 1,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}