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Title: Net-zero emissions energy systems

Abstract

Some energy services and industrial processes - such as long-distance freight transport, air travel, highly reliable electricity, and steel and cement manufacturing - are particularly difficult to provide without adding carbon dioxide (CO 2) to the atmosphere. Rapidly growing demand for these services, combined with long lead times for technology development and long lifetimes of energy infrastructure, make decarbonization of these services both essential and urgent. We examine barriers and opportunities associated with these difficult-to-decarbonize services and processes, including possible technological solutions and research and development priorities. A range of existing technologies could meet future demands for these services and processes without net addition of CO 2 to the atmosphere, but their use may depend on a combination of cost reductions via research and innovation, as well as coordinated deployment and integration of operations across currently discrete energy industries.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [1]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10];  [11];  [12]; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [16];  [17]; ORCiD logo [18] more »; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [19];  [7];  [3]; ORCiD logo [20];  [21]; ORCiD logo [3];  [20]; ORCiD logo [7];  [22]; ORCiD logo;  [7] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  3. Carnegie Inst. of Science, Stanford, CA (United States)
  4. Energy Innovation, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  5. Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  6. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  7. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  8. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  9. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  10. Vibrant Clean Energy, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)
  11. Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA (United States)
  12. Rocky Mountain Inst., Boulder, CO (United States)
  13. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  14. Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States)
  15. Holy Cross Energy, Glenwood Springs, CO (United States)
  16. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  17. New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States)
  18. Lucid Strategy, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  19. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  20. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  21. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  22. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Santa Fe Inst. (SFI), Santa Fe, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1460617
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-70804
Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 360; Journal Issue: 6396; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; energy services; without net addition carbon dioxide; CO2

Citation Formats

Davis, Steven J., Lewis, Nathan S., Shaner, Matthew, Aggarwal, Sonia, Arent, Doug, Azevedo, Ines L., Benson, Sally M., Bradley, Thomas, Brouwer, Jack, Chiang, Yet-Ming, Clack, Christopher T. M., Cohen, Armond, Doig, Stephen, Edmonds, Jae, Fennell, Paul, Field, Christopher B., Hannegan, Bryan, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, Hoffert, Martin I., Ingersoll, Eric, Jaramillo, Paulina, Lackner, Klaus S., Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael, Ogden, Joan, Peterson, Per F., Sanchez, Daniel L., Sperling, Daniel, Stagner, Joseph, Trancik, Jessika E., Yang, Chi-Jen, and Caldeira, Ken. Net-zero emissions energy systems. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aas9793.
Davis, Steven J., Lewis, Nathan S., Shaner, Matthew, Aggarwal, Sonia, Arent, Doug, Azevedo, Ines L., Benson, Sally M., Bradley, Thomas, Brouwer, Jack, Chiang, Yet-Ming, Clack, Christopher T. M., Cohen, Armond, Doig, Stephen, Edmonds, Jae, Fennell, Paul, Field, Christopher B., Hannegan, Bryan, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, Hoffert, Martin I., Ingersoll, Eric, Jaramillo, Paulina, Lackner, Klaus S., Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael, Ogden, Joan, Peterson, Per F., Sanchez, Daniel L., Sperling, Daniel, Stagner, Joseph, Trancik, Jessika E., Yang, Chi-Jen, & Caldeira, Ken. Net-zero emissions energy systems. United States. doi:10.1126/science.aas9793.
Davis, Steven J., Lewis, Nathan S., Shaner, Matthew, Aggarwal, Sonia, Arent, Doug, Azevedo, Ines L., Benson, Sally M., Bradley, Thomas, Brouwer, Jack, Chiang, Yet-Ming, Clack, Christopher T. M., Cohen, Armond, Doig, Stephen, Edmonds, Jae, Fennell, Paul, Field, Christopher B., Hannegan, Bryan, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, Hoffert, Martin I., Ingersoll, Eric, Jaramillo, Paulina, Lackner, Klaus S., Mach, Katharine J., Mastrandrea, Michael, Ogden, Joan, Peterson, Per F., Sanchez, Daniel L., Sperling, Daniel, Stagner, Joseph, Trancik, Jessika E., Yang, Chi-Jen, and Caldeira, Ken. Fri . "Net-zero emissions energy systems". United States. doi:10.1126/science.aas9793. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1460617.
@article{osti_1460617,
title = {Net-zero emissions energy systems},
author = {Davis, Steven J. and Lewis, Nathan S. and Shaner, Matthew and Aggarwal, Sonia and Arent, Doug and Azevedo, Ines L. and Benson, Sally M. and Bradley, Thomas and Brouwer, Jack and Chiang, Yet-Ming and Clack, Christopher T. M. and Cohen, Armond and Doig, Stephen and Edmonds, Jae and Fennell, Paul and Field, Christopher B. and Hannegan, Bryan and Hodge, Bri-Mathias and Hoffert, Martin I. and Ingersoll, Eric and Jaramillo, Paulina and Lackner, Klaus S. and Mach, Katharine J. and Mastrandrea, Michael and Ogden, Joan and Peterson, Per F. and Sanchez, Daniel L. and Sperling, Daniel and Stagner, Joseph and Trancik, Jessika E. and Yang, Chi-Jen and Caldeira, Ken},
abstractNote = {Some energy services and industrial processes - such as long-distance freight transport, air travel, highly reliable electricity, and steel and cement manufacturing - are particularly difficult to provide without adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Rapidly growing demand for these services, combined with long lead times for technology development and long lifetimes of energy infrastructure, make decarbonization of these services both essential and urgent. We examine barriers and opportunities associated with these difficult-to-decarbonize services and processes, including possible technological solutions and research and development priorities. A range of existing technologies could meet future demands for these services and processes without net addition of CO2 to the atmosphere, but their use may depend on a combination of cost reductions via research and innovation, as well as coordinated deployment and integration of operations across currently discrete energy industries.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aas9793},
journal = {Science},
number = 6396,
volume = 360,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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