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Title: Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser

Abstract

In 1954 Dicke predicted the accelerated initial decay of multiple atomic excitations1, laying the foundation for the concept of superradiance. Further studies suggested that emission of the total energy was similarly accelerated, provided that the system reaches the inversion threshold. Superradiant emission of the total energy has been confirmed by numerous studies, yet the acceleration of the initial decay has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here we use resonant diffraction of X-rays from the Mossbauer transition of 57Fe nuclei to investigate superradiant decay, photon by photon, along the entire chain of the de-excitation cascade of up to 68 simultaneous coherent nuclear excitations created by a pulse of an X-ray free-electron laser. We find agreement with Dicke's theory for the accelerated initial decay as the number of excitations is increased. We also find that our results are in agreement with a simple statistical model, providing a necessary baseline for discussing further properties of superradiance, within and beyond the low-excitation regime.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [2];  [7];  [2];  [2]
  1. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russia)
  2. RIKEN, Hyogo (Japan). SPring-8 Center
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
  5. National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russia)
  6. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)
  7. Japan Synchrotron Radiation Inst., Hyogo (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1459890
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, and Ishikawa, Tetsuya. Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z.
Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, & Ishikawa, Tetsuya. Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z.
Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, and Ishikawa, Tetsuya. Mon . "Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459890.
@article{osti_1459890,
title = {Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser},
author = {Chumakov, Aleksandr I. and Baron, Alfred Q. R. and Sergueev, Ilya and Strohm, Cornelius and Leupold, Olaf and Shvyd?ko, Yuri and Smirnov, Gennadi V. and Ruffer, Rudolf and Inubushi, Yuichi and Yabashi, Makina and Tono, Kensuke and Kudo, Togo and Ishikawa, Tetsuya},
abstractNote = {In 1954 Dicke predicted the accelerated initial decay of multiple atomic excitations1, laying the foundation for the concept of superradiance. Further studies suggested that emission of the total energy was similarly accelerated, provided that the system reaches the inversion threshold. Superradiant emission of the total energy has been confirmed by numerous studies, yet the acceleration of the initial decay has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here we use resonant diffraction of X-rays from the Mossbauer transition of 57Fe nuclei to investigate superradiant decay, photon by photon, along the entire chain of the de-excitation cascade of up to 68 simultaneous coherent nuclear excitations created by a pulse of an X-ray free-electron laser. We find agreement with Dicke's theory for the accelerated initial decay as the number of excitations is increased. We also find that our results are in agreement with a simple statistical model, providing a necessary baseline for discussing further properties of superradiance, within and beyond the low-excitation regime.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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Superradiance on the millihertz linewidth strontium clock transition
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Superradiance: An essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission
    journal, December 1982


    A steady-state superradiant laser with less than one intracavity photon
    journal, April 2012

    • Bohnet, Justin G.; Chen, Zilong; Weiner, Joshua M.
    • Nature, Vol. 484, Issue 7392
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature10920

    A compact X-ray free-electron laser emitting in the sub-ångström region
    journal, June 2012


    On excitation of isomeric nuclear states in a crystal by synchrotron radiation
    journal, February 1979

    • Kagan, Yu; Afanas'ev, A. M.; Kohn, V. G.
    • Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1088/0022-3719/12/3/027

    Nuclear Bragg scattering of synchrotron radiation with strong speedup of coherent decay, measured on antiferromagnetic 57 FeBO 3
    journal, July 1987


    Mössbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation
    journal, February 1991


    Superradiance on the millihertz linewidth strontium clock transition
    journal, October 2016

    • Norcia, Matthew A.; Winchester, Matthew N.; Cline, Julia R. K.
    • Science Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601231

    The Super of Superradiance
    journal, September 2009


    Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser
    text, January 2018

    • Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Baron, Alfred; Sergueev, Ilya
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-01222