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Title: Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser

In 1954 Dicke predicted the accelerated initial decay of multiple atomic excitations1, laying the foundation for the concept of superradiance. Further studies suggested that emission of the total energy was similarly accelerated, provided that the system reaches the inversion threshold. Superradiant emission of the total energy has been confirmed by numerous studies, yet the acceleration of the initial decay has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here we use resonant diffraction of X-rays from the Mossbauer transition of 57Fe nuclei to investigate superradiant decay, photon by photon, along the entire chain of the de-excitation cascade of up to 68 simultaneous coherent nuclear excitations created by a pulse of an X-ray free-electron laser. We find agreement with Dicke's theory for the accelerated initial decay as the number of excitations is increased. We also find that our results are in agreement with a simple statistical model, providing a necessary baseline for discussing further properties of superradiance, within and beyond the low-excitation regime.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [7] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russia)
  2. RIKEN, Hyogo (Japan). SPring-8 Center
  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
  5. National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russia)
  6. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)
  7. Japan Synchrotron Radiation Inst., Hyogo (Japan)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1459890

Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, and Ishikawa, Tetsuya. Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z.
Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, & Ishikawa, Tetsuya. Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z.
Chumakov, Aleksandr I., Baron, Alfred Q. R., Sergueev, Ilya, Strohm, Cornelius, Leupold, Olaf, Shvyd?ko, Yuri, Smirnov, Gennadi V., Ruffer, Rudolf, Inubushi, Yuichi, Yabashi, Makina, Tono, Kensuke, Kudo, Togo, and Ishikawa, Tetsuya. 2017. "Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459890.
@article{osti_1459890,
title = {Superradiance of an ensemble of nuclei excited by a free electron laser},
author = {Chumakov, Aleksandr I. and Baron, Alfred Q. R. and Sergueev, Ilya and Strohm, Cornelius and Leupold, Olaf and Shvyd?ko, Yuri and Smirnov, Gennadi V. and Ruffer, Rudolf and Inubushi, Yuichi and Yabashi, Makina and Tono, Kensuke and Kudo, Togo and Ishikawa, Tetsuya},
abstractNote = {In 1954 Dicke predicted the accelerated initial decay of multiple atomic excitations1, laying the foundation for the concept of superradiance. Further studies suggested that emission of the total energy was similarly accelerated, provided that the system reaches the inversion threshold. Superradiant emission of the total energy has been confirmed by numerous studies, yet the acceleration of the initial decay has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here we use resonant diffraction of X-rays from the Mossbauer transition of 57Fe nuclei to investigate superradiant decay, photon by photon, along the entire chain of the de-excitation cascade of up to 68 simultaneous coherent nuclear excitations created by a pulse of an X-ray free-electron laser. We find agreement with Dicke's theory for the accelerated initial decay as the number of excitations is increased. We also find that our results are in agreement with a simple statistical model, providing a necessary baseline for discussing further properties of superradiance, within and beyond the low-excitation regime.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-017-0001-z},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}