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Title: Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV

Abstract

In this paper, a stack of thin Nb foils was irradiated with the 100 MeV proton beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Isotope Production Facility, to investigate the 93Nb(p,4n)90Mo nuclear reaction as a monitor for intermediate energy proton experiments and to benchmark state-of-the-art reaction model codes. A set of 38 measured cross sections for natNb(p,x) and natCu(p,x) reactions between 40–90 MeV, as well as 5 independent measurements of isomer branching ratios, are reported. These are useful in medical and basic science radionuclide productions at intermediate energies. The natCu(p,x)56Co, natCu(p,x)62Zn, and natCu(p,x)65Zn reactions were used to determine proton fluence, and all activities were quantified using HPGe spectrometry. Variance minimization techniques were employed to reduce systematic uncertainties in proton energy and fluence, improving the reliability of these measurements. The measured cross sections are shown to be in excellent agreement with literature values, and have been measured with improved precision compared with previous measurements. This work also reports the first measurement of the natNb(p,x)82mRb reaction, and of the independent cross sections for natCu(p,x)52gMn and natNb(p,x)85gY in the 40–90 MeV region. The effects of natSi(p,x)22,24Na contamination, arising from silicone adhesive in the Kapton tape used to encapsulate the aluminum monitor foils, is also discussedmore » as a cautionary note to future stacked-target cross section measurements. Finally, a priori predictions of the reaction modeling codes CoH, EMPIRE, and TALYS are compared with experimentally measured values and used to explore the differences between codes for the natNb(p,x) and natCu(p,x) reactions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics
  5. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Naval Reactors; Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1459841
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1528901; OSTI ID: 1582958
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-22980
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-583X; TRN: US1901814
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 429; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-583X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Nb + p; Cu + p; niobium; 90Mo; nuclear cross sections; stacked target activation; monitor reactions; medical isotope production; isomer branching ratios; MCNP; LANL

Citation Formats

Voyles, Andrew S., Bernstein, Lee A., Birnbaum, Eva R., Engle, Jonathan W., Graves, Stephen A., Kawano, Toshihiko, Lewis, Amanda M., and Nortier, Francois M. Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2018.05.028.
Voyles, Andrew S., Bernstein, Lee A., Birnbaum, Eva R., Engle, Jonathan W., Graves, Stephen A., Kawano, Toshihiko, Lewis, Amanda M., & Nortier, Francois M. Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2018.05.028
Voyles, Andrew S., Bernstein, Lee A., Birnbaum, Eva R., Engle, Jonathan W., Graves, Stephen A., Kawano, Toshihiko, Lewis, Amanda M., and Nortier, Francois M. Fri . "Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2018.05.028. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459841.
@article{osti_1459841,
title = {Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV},
author = {Voyles, Andrew S. and Bernstein, Lee A. and Birnbaum, Eva R. and Engle, Jonathan W. and Graves, Stephen A. and Kawano, Toshihiko and Lewis, Amanda M. and Nortier, Francois M.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, a stack of thin Nb foils was irradiated with the 100 MeV proton beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Isotope Production Facility, to investigate the 93Nb(p,4n)90Mo nuclear reaction as a monitor for intermediate energy proton experiments and to benchmark state-of-the-art reaction model codes. A set of 38 measured cross sections for natNb(p,x) and natCu(p,x) reactions between 40–90 MeV, as well as 5 independent measurements of isomer branching ratios, are reported. These are useful in medical and basic science radionuclide productions at intermediate energies. The natCu(p,x)56Co, natCu(p,x)62Zn, and natCu(p,x)65Zn reactions were used to determine proton fluence, and all activities were quantified using HPGe spectrometry. Variance minimization techniques were employed to reduce systematic uncertainties in proton energy and fluence, improving the reliability of these measurements. The measured cross sections are shown to be in excellent agreement with literature values, and have been measured with improved precision compared with previous measurements. This work also reports the first measurement of the natNb(p,x)82mRb reaction, and of the independent cross sections for natCu(p,x)52gMn and natNb(p,x)85gY in the 40–90 MeV region. The effects of natSi(p,x)22,24Na contamination, arising from silicone adhesive in the Kapton tape used to encapsulate the aluminum monitor foils, is also discussed as a cautionary note to future stacked-target cross section measurements. Finally, a priori predictions of the reaction modeling codes CoH, EMPIRE, and TALYS are compared with experimentally measured values and used to explore the differences between codes for the natNb(p,x) and natCu(p,x) reactions.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2018.05.028},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
number = ,
volume = 429,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}