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Title: In situ investigation of halide incorporation into perovskite solar cells

We report on the material chemistry following crystallization in the presence of water vapor of chlorinated formamidinium lead-triiodide (NH 2CH = NH 2PbI 3-xCl x) perovskite films. We found in-situ exposure to water vapor reduces, or possibly eliminates, the retention of chlorine (Cl) inside NH 2CH = NH 2PbI 3-xCl x crystals. There is a strong tendency toward Cl volatility, which indicates the sensitivity of these materials for their integration into solar cells. The requisite for additional efforts focused on the mitigation of water vapor is reported. Based on the in situ results, hot casting (<100°C) in dry conditions demonstrates improved film coverage and Cl retention with efficiencies reaching 12.07%.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [3] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [5] ;  [5]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Materials Science and Technology Directorate; Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Materials Science and Engineering; Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Design and Development Directorate
  2. Univ. of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Advanced Materials Inst.; Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Univ. of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Advanced Materials Inst.
  4. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering
  5. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Materials Science and Technology Directorate
  6. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-27587; NREL/JA-5K00-68970
Journal ID: ISSN 2159-6859; applab
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC36-08-GO28308; 2013LANL8400
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
MRS Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2159-6859
Publisher:
Materials Research Society - Cambridge University Press
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; in-situ; STEM; XRD; Photovoltaics; Perovskite films
OSTI Identifier:
1459819