skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons

Abstract

Plasma sources of electrons offer control of gas and surface chemistry without the need for complex vacuum systems. The plasma electron source presented here is based on a cold cathode glow discharge (GD) operating in a dc steady state mode in a moderate pressure range of 2–10 torr. Ion-induced secondary electron emission is the source of electrons accelerated to high energies in the cathode sheath potential. The source geometry is a key to the availability and the extraction of the nonthermal portion of the electron population. The source consists of a flat and a cylindrical electrode, 1 mm apart. Our estimates show that the length of the cathode sheath in the plasma source is commensurate (~0.5–1 mm) with the inter-electrode distance so the GD operates in an obstructed regime without a positive column. Estimations of the electron energy relaxation confirm the non-local nature of this GD, hence the nonthermal portion of the electron population is available for extraction outside of the source. The use of a cylindrical anode presents a simple and promising method of extracting the high energy portion of the electron population. Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy confirm the presence of electrons with energies ~15 eVmore » outside of the source. These electrons become available for surface modification and radical production outside of the source. In conclusion, the extraction of the electrons of specific energies by varying the anode geometry opens exciting opportunities for future exploration.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1459552
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466; 201506340040
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3727
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; glow discharge; electron source; non­equilibrium plasma; non­local plasma; nonthermal electrons

Citation Formats

Gershman, S., and Raitses, Y.. Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aabfb1.
Gershman, S., & Raitses, Y.. Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aabfb1
Gershman, S., and Raitses, Y.. Fri . "Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aabfb1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459552.
@article{osti_1459552,
title = {Moderate pressure plasma source of nonthermal electrons},
author = {Gershman, S. and Raitses, Y.},
abstractNote = {Plasma sources of electrons offer control of gas and surface chemistry without the need for complex vacuum systems. The plasma electron source presented here is based on a cold cathode glow discharge (GD) operating in a dc steady state mode in a moderate pressure range of 2–10 torr. Ion-induced secondary electron emission is the source of electrons accelerated to high energies in the cathode sheath potential. The source geometry is a key to the availability and the extraction of the nonthermal portion of the electron population. The source consists of a flat and a cylindrical electrode, 1 mm apart. Our estimates show that the length of the cathode sheath in the plasma source is commensurate (~0.5–1 mm) with the inter-electrode distance so the GD operates in an obstructed regime without a positive column. Estimations of the electron energy relaxation confirm the non-local nature of this GD, hence the nonthermal portion of the electron population is available for extraction outside of the source. The use of a cylindrical anode presents a simple and promising method of extracting the high energy portion of the electron population. Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy confirm the presence of electrons with energies ~15 eV outside of the source. These electrons become available for surface modification and radical production outside of the source. In conclusion, the extraction of the electrons of specific energies by varying the anode geometry opens exciting opportunities for future exploration.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6463/aabfb1},
journal = {Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics},
number = 23,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Nitrogen Molecules
journal, March 2006

  • Itikawa, Yukikazu
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 35, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1937426

Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall thruster discharge
journal, May 2005

  • Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1915516

Fully differential cross sections for low-energy electron-impact ionization of nitrogen molecules
journal, August 2005


Influence of the transverse dimension on the structure and properties of dc glow discharges
journal, October 2010

  • Bogdanov, E. A.; Adams, S. F.; Demidov, V. I.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3486525

Comprehensive description of a Grimm-type glow discharge source used for optical emission spectrometry: A mathematical simulation
journal, March 1998


Role of nonlocal ionization in formation of the short glow discharge
journal, August 2008


The use of Langmuir probes in the study of high pressure plasmas
journal, September 1976


Distribution of plasma parameters in the cathode region of a glow discharge in nitrogen
journal, September 2012


20 years of microplasma research: a status report
journal, February 2016


Optimization of a low-pressure hollow-anode electrical discharge for generation of high-current electron beams
journal, January 2005

  • Gleizer, J. Z.; Yarmolich, D.; Krokhmal, A.
  • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 38, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/38/2/013

Self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation of the cathode fall including treatment of negative-glow electrons
journal, July 1992


Validation and benchmarking of two particle-in-cell codes for a glow discharge
journal, November 2016

  • Carlsson, Johan; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor
  • Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0963-0252/26/1/014003

Electron kinetics in non-uniform glow discharge plasmas
journal, May 1995


Fore-vacuum plasma-cathode electron sources
journal, November 2008


Probe measurements of electron-energy distributions in plasmas: what can we measure and how can we achieve reliable results?
journal, May 2011


Analysis of continuous generation of electron beams in medium-pressure gases
journal, August 2013


Anomalously High Near-Wall Sheath Potential Drop in a Plasma with Nonlocal Fast Electrons
journal, November 2005


Control of plasma properties in a short direct-current glow discharge with active boundaries
journal, February 2016

  • Adams, S. F.; Demidov, V. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4941259

Design and operating characteristics of new type cold cathode ion source
journal, December 2007

  • Hassan, A.; Bassal, N.; Zakhary, S. G.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 78, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2821236

A simple electron gun by obstructed discharge and its discharge-sustaining mechanism
journal, October 2000


Determination of the electron temperature and density in the negative glow of a nitrogen pulsed discharge using optical emission spectroscopy
journal, December 2009


Can the temperature of electrons in a high-pressure plasma be determined by means of an electrostatic probe?
journal, July 2000


The dissociative electroionization of carbon dioxide by low-energy electron impact. The C+, O+ and CO+ dissociation channels
journal, May 1995

  • Locht, R.; Davister, M.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 144, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1176(95)04158-h

Highly efficient electron beam generation in a wide-aperture discharge in helium
journal, September 2008

  • Belskaya, E. V.; Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2978350

Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Abnormal Glow Region in Nitrogen Plasma
journal, October 2005

  • Qayyum, A.; Zeb, Shaista; Ali, Shujaat
  • Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11090-005-4999-9

Surface Composition, Chemistry, and Structure of Polystyrene Modified by Electron-Beam-Generated Plasma
journal, June 2010

  • Lock, Evgeniya H.; Petrovykh, Dmitri Y.; Mack, Paul
  • Langmuir, Vol. 26, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/la9046337

Influence of the inter-electrode gap on the cathode sheath characteristics (voltage drop across it and its thickness)
journal, April 2017

  • Lisovskiy, V. A.; Artushenko, K. P.; Yegorenkov, V. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4982211

Cold-cathode discharges and breakdown in argon: surface and gas phase production of secondary electrons
journal, January 1999


Fundamental studies on a planar-cathode direct current glow discharge. Part II: numerical modeling and comparison with laser scattering experiments
journal, April 2004

  • Bogaerts, Annemie; Gijbels, Renaat; Gamez, Gerardo
  • Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 59, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2003.12.001

Fundamental studies on a planar-cathode direct current glow discharge. Part I: characterization via laser scattering techniques
journal, April 2004

  • Gamez, Gerardo; Bogaerts, Annemie; Andrade, Francisco
  • Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 59, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2003.12.002

Means for efficient electron beam generation in wide-aperture open-discharge light sources
journal, July 2006


Peculiarities of electron emission from the cathode in an abnormal glow discharge
journal, April 2005

  • Bokhan, A. P.; Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, D. E.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1901819

A mechanism of electron emission in an open discharge
journal, March 2001

  • Bokhan, A. P.; Bokhan, P. A.
  • Technical Physics Letters, Vol. 27, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1134/1.1359833

The glow discharge: an exciting plasma!
journal, January 1999

  • Bogaerts, Annemie
  • Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 14, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/a900772e

Electric field distribution in the cathode-fall region of an abnormal glow discharge in hydrogen: experiment and theory
journal, March 2012


Suprathermal electron energy spectrum and nonlocally affected plasma-wall interaction in helium/air micro-plasma at atmospheric pressure
journal, October 2016

  • Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Miles, J. A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 23, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4964721

Glow discharge plasma properties of gases of environmental interest
journal, January 2004


Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential
journal, October 2014

  • Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R.; Baalrud, S. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4897927

Distribution of plasma parameters in the cathode region of a glow discharge in nitrogen
journal, September 2012


Analysis of continuous generation of electron beams in medium-pressure gases
journal, August 2013


Comprehensive description of a Grimm-type glow discharge source used for optical emission spectrometry: A mathematical simulation
journal, March 1998


Means for efficient electron beam generation in wide-aperture open-discharge light sources
journal, July 2006


Role of nonlocal ionization in formation of the short glow discharge
journal, August 2008


Fully differential cross sections for low-energy electron-impact ionization of nitrogen molecules
journal, August 2005


Self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation of the cathode fall including treatment of negative-glow electrons
journal, July 1992


Anomalously High Near-Wall Sheath Potential Drop in a Plasma with Nonlocal Fast Electrons
journal, November 2005


The dissociative electroionization of carbon dioxide by low-energy electron impact. The C+, O+ and CO+ dissociation channels
journal, May 1995

  • Locht, R.; Davister, M.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 144, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1176(95)04158-H

Glow discharge plasma properties of gases of environmental interest
journal, January 2004


A simple electron gun by obstructed discharge and its discharge-sustaining mechanism
journal, October 2000


Validation and Benchmarking of Two Particle-in-Cell Codes for a Glow Discharge
conference, May 2017

  • Carlsson, J.; Khrabrov, A.; Kaganovich, I.
  • 2017 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)
  • DOI: 10.1109/plasma.2017.8496256