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Title: Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing

Abstract

The ANSI/HPS N13.1–2011 standard requires gaseous tracer uniformity testing for sampling associated with stacks used in radioactive air emissions. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential, has long been the gas tracer used in such testing. To reduce the impact of gas tracer tests on the environment, nitrous oxide (N2O) was evaluated as a potential replacement to SF6. The physical evaluation included the development of a test plan to record percent coefficient of variance and the percent maximum deviation between the two gases while considering variables such as fan configuration, injection position, and flow rate. Statistical power was calculated to determine how many sample sets were needed, and computational fluid dynamic modeling was utilized to estimate overall mixing in stacks. Results show there are no significant differences between the behaviors of the two gases, and SF6 modeling corroborated N2O test results. Although, in principle, all tracer gases should behave in an identical manner for measuring mixing within a stack, the series of physical tests guided by statistics was performed to demonstrate the equivalence of N2O testing to SF6 testing in the context of stack qualification tests. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that N2O is amore » viable choice leading to a four times reduction in global warming impacts for future similar compliance driven testing.« less

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1459450
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1416970
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-128014
Journal ID: ISSN 1352-2310; S1352231017308567; PII: S1352231017308567
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Environment (1994)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Environment (1994) Journal Volume: 176 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1352-2310
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANSI/HPS N13.1–2011; Gaseous tracer testing; Global warming potential; N2O; SF6; Standards

Citation Formats

Yu, Xiao-Ying, Barnett, J. Matthew, Amidan, Brett G., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Flaherty, Julia E., Antonio, Ernest J., and Glissmeyer, John A. Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.015.
Yu, Xiao-Ying, Barnett, J. Matthew, Amidan, Brett G., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Flaherty, Julia E., Antonio, Ernest J., & Glissmeyer, John A. Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.015.
Yu, Xiao-Ying, Barnett, J. Matthew, Amidan, Brett G., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Flaherty, Julia E., Antonio, Ernest J., and Glissmeyer, John A. Thu . "Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.015.
@article{osti_1459450,
title = {Evaluation of nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride to reduce global warming impacts of ANSI/HPS N13.1 gaseous uniformity testing},
author = {Yu, Xiao-Ying and Barnett, J. Matthew and Amidan, Brett G. and Recknagle, Kurtis P. and Flaherty, Julia E. and Antonio, Ernest J. and Glissmeyer, John A.},
abstractNote = {The ANSI/HPS N13.1–2011 standard requires gaseous tracer uniformity testing for sampling associated with stacks used in radioactive air emissions. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a greenhouse gas with a high global warming potential, has long been the gas tracer used in such testing. To reduce the impact of gas tracer tests on the environment, nitrous oxide (N2O) was evaluated as a potential replacement to SF6. The physical evaluation included the development of a test plan to record percent coefficient of variance and the percent maximum deviation between the two gases while considering variables such as fan configuration, injection position, and flow rate. Statistical power was calculated to determine how many sample sets were needed, and computational fluid dynamic modeling was utilized to estimate overall mixing in stacks. Results show there are no significant differences between the behaviors of the two gases, and SF6 modeling corroborated N2O test results. Although, in principle, all tracer gases should behave in an identical manner for measuring mixing within a stack, the series of physical tests guided by statistics was performed to demonstrate the equivalence of N2O testing to SF6 testing in the context of stack qualification tests. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that N2O is a viable choice leading to a four times reduction in global warming impacts for future similar compliance driven testing.},
doi = {10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.015},
journal = {Atmospheric Environment (1994)},
number = C,
volume = 176,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.015

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Photos of the modified LB-S1 scale model used in the N2O and SF6 testing: a) Upstream section with backdraft dampers; b) Center section with Injection Port 2; and c) Downstream section with “Other” Injection Port and Sampling Port 2.

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.